Endnotes

[1] CPS Handbook § 2200, located at http://www.dfps.state.tx.us/handbooks/CPS/Files/CPS_pg_2200.asp. Last visited September 12, 2019.

[2] The Texas Family Violence Bench Book, located at http://www.txcourts.gov/media/478288/domesticviolencebenchbook.pdf. Last visited September 12, 2019.

[3] Updates to chapters of the Texas Family Violence Bench Book, located at: http://www.txcourts.gov/publications-training/judicial-ethics-bench-books/judicial-bench-books.aspx Last visited September 12, 2019.

[4] Interstate Compact on Placement of Children, located at: https://aphsa.org/AAICPC/default.aspx. Last visited September 12, 2019.

[5] CPS Handbook § 4523, located at: https://www.dfps.state.tx.us/handbooks/CPS/Files/CPS_pg_4500.asp#CPS_4523. Last visited September 12, 2019.

[6] A Guide for Those “Aging Out” of Foster Care in Texas, located available at: http://texasfosteryouth.org/. Last visited September 12, 2019.

[7] Extended Court Jurisdiction Flowchart, located at: http://www.dfps.state.tx.us/Child_Protection/Youth_and_Young_Adults/Transitional_Living/Extended_Foster_Care/documents/Extended_Court_Jurisdiction_Flow_Chart.pdf. Last visited September 12, 2019.

[8] DFPS Transitional Living Services Handout, located at: https://www.dfps.state.tx.us/Child_Protection/Youth_and_Young_Adults/Transitional_Living/documents/Transitional_Living_Services_Handout.pdf. Last visited September 12, 2019.

[9] Ex parte Daniels, 722 S.W.2d 707, 708 (Tex. Crim. App. 1987)

[10] Ex parte Duncan, 182 S.W. 313, 314 (Tex. Crim. App. 1916); Cooke v. United States, 45 Sup. Ct. 390, 394 (1925); Ex parte Flournoy, 312 S.W.2d 488, 492 (Tex. 1958); Tex. Gov't Code § 21.002(d).

[11] Ex parte Knable, 818 S.W.2d 811 (Tex. Crim. App. 1991)

[12] Ex parte Cardwell, 416 S.W.2d 382, 384 (Tex. 1967); Hicks on Behalf of Feiock v. Feiock, 108 Sup. Ct. 1423, 1429 (1998).

[13] Ex parte Chambers, 898 S.W.2d 257, 260 (Tex. 1995) rehearing overruled

[14] In re Rowe, 113 S.W.3d 749, 752 (Tex. App.—Austin, 2003, no writ); In re R.E.D., 278 S.W.3d 850, 856 (Tex. App.—Houston [1st Dist] 2009, no writ)

[15] Ex parte Conway, 419 S.W.2d 827, 828 (Tex. 1967)

[16] In re Oliver, 68 Sup. Ct. 499, 507 (1948); Ex parte Martin, 656 S.W.2d 443, 445 (Tex. Crim. App. 1982)

[17] Ex parte Vetterick, 744 S.W.2d 598,599 (Tex.1988); Tex. Fam. Code § 157.062

[18] Ex parte Gunther, 758 S.W.2d 226, 227 (Tex. 1988); Tex. Fam. Code § 157.163(b)

[19] Muniz v. Hoffman, 422 U.S. 454, 95 S. Ct. 2178, 2190 (1975); Ex Parte Werblud, 536 S.W.2d 542, 546 (Tex. 1976).

[20] Ex parte Griffin, 682 S.W.2d 261, 262 (Tex. 1984)

[21] Chambers, 898 S.W.2d at 261; In re Lausch, 177 S.W.3d 144, 155 (Tex. App.—Houston [1st Dist.] 2005, no pet.).

[22] Ex parte Johns, 807 S.W.2d 768, 771, (Tex. App.—Dallas, 1991, no pet.).

[23] Ex parte Landry, 144 S.W. 962, 963 (Tex. Crim. App. 1912); Hicks, 108 Sup. Ct. at 1430; Chambers, 898 S.W.2d at 259; R.E.D., 278 S.W.3d at 860.

[24] In Interest of R.R.F., 846 S.W.2d 65, 68 (Tex. App. – Corpus Christi 1992)

[25] Travelhost v. Blandford, 68 F.3d 958, 961 (5th Cir. 1995)

[26] Alberti v. Klevenhagen, 610 F. Supp. 138, 141 (S.D. Texas 1985); Ruiz v. McCotter, 661 F. Supp. 112, 116 (S.D. Texas 1986)

[27] Green v. U.S., 78 S. Ct. 632, 644

[28] Muniz, 95 S. Ct. at 2190

[29] Werblud, 536 S.W.2d at 546

[30] Griffin, 682 S.W.2d at 262

[31] Ex parte York, 899 S.W.2d 47, 49 (Tex. App.—Waco 1995, no writ)

[32] In re Brown, 114 S.W.3d 7, 11 (Tex. App.— Amarillo 2003, no writ) (citing Werblud, 536 S.W.2d at 546)

[33] In re Alexander, 243 S.W.3d 822, 825 (Tex. App. – San Antonio 2007, no writ)

[34] Ex parte Shacklee, 939 S.W. 2d 144, 145 (Tex. 1997)

[35] In re Nesevitch, 93 S.W. 3d 510, 513 (Tex. App. – Houston [14th Dist.] 2002, no writ)

[36] Ex parte Calvillo Amaya, 748 S.W.2d 224, 225 (Tex. 1988); Ex parte Whitehead, 908 S.W.2d 68, 70 (Tex. App – Houston [1st Dist] 1995, no writ)

[37] Ex parte Mitchell, 738 S.W.2d 703, 706 (Tex. App. – El Paso 1989, no writ)

[38] Ex parte Proctor, 398 S.W.2d 917, 918 (Tex. 1966)

[39] Ex parte Whitehead 908 S.W. 2d at 70; Ex parte Supercinski, 561 S.W.2d 482 (Tex. Crim. App. 1977)

[40] TEX. FAM. CODE § 201.005(a).

[41] TEX. FAM. CODE § 201.005(b), (c).

[42] TEX. FAM. CODE § 201.015.

[43] TEX. FAM. CODE § 201.005(c).

[44] Id.

[45] TEX. FAM. CODE § 201.015(a), .2042(b) (in child-protection cases, the requesting party must also file the request with the referring court).

[46] TEX. FAM. CODE § 201.015(f).

[47] TEX. FAM. CODE § 201.015(b); see In re L.R., 324 S.W.3d 885, 890 n.5 (Tex. App.—Austin 2010, no pet.)

(“[T]he de novo hearing before the referring court is limited to those issues raised in the hearing request.”).

[48] TEX. FAM. CODE § 201.015(f).

[49] Tex. Fam. Code § 201.015(i).

[50] In the Interest of A.L.M.-F., A.M., J.A.-F., N.A.-F., and E.A.-F., No.170603.

[51] Key W. Life Ins. Co. v. State Bd. of Ins., 350 S.W.2d 839, 846 (Tex. 1961) (defining “trial de novo” and describing its attributes); Lone Star Gas Co. v. State, 153 S.W.2d 681, 692 (Tex. 1941) (a trial de novo ordinarily requires the court to conduct a “full civil trial on the facts as well as the law” where the parties will “try the case as if the suit had been filed originally in that court”).

[52] In re A.L.M.-F No 170603 at 8.

[53] Tex. Fam. Code Sec. 201.2041.

[54] Department of Family & Protective Services Supervised Independent Living. Available online at https://www.dfps.state.tx.us/Child_Protection/Youth_and_Young_Adults/Transitional_Living/Extended_Foster_Care/supervised_independent_living.asp. Last visited September 12, 2019.

[55] Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), Guidelines for State Courts and Agencies in Indian Child Custody Proceedings, 81 Fed. Reg. 96476 (Dec. 2016). Available online at https://www.bia.gov/sites/bia.gov/files/assets/bia/ois/pdf/idc2-056831.pdf. Last visited September 12, 2019.

[56] Guidelines at D.7.

[57] Guidelines at I.4.

[58] Guidelines at L.4.

[59] Guidelines at B.5.

[60] Guidelines at B.7.

[61] Guidelines at B.2.

[62] Guidelines at B.7.

[63] Guidelines at B.1.

[64] Guidelines at C.3.

[65] Guidelines at A.3.

[66] Guidelines at D.8.

[67] Guidelines at F.2.

[68] Guidelines at F.4.

[69] Guidelines at J.5.

[70] Guidelines at H.2.

[71] Guidelines at G.1.

[72] Guidelines at E.1 through E.5.

[73] Guidelines at C.8.

[74] Guidelines at I.3.

[75] Explanation of ICPC Regulation VII (October 2011), located at: https://aphsa.org/AAICPC/AAICPC/ICPC_Publications_and_Papers.aspx. Last visited September 12, 2019.

[76] National Conference of State Legislatures, http://www.ncsl.org/research/human-services/disproportionality-and-disparity-in-child-welfare.aspx. Last visited September 20, 2019.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2010). Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth, and Families. The AFCARS report: Preliminary FY 2009 estimates as of July 2010. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

[77] Billingsley, A., & Giovannoni, J. M. (1972). Children of the storm. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanivich.

[78] Hill, R. B. (2008). An analysis of racial/ethnic disproportionality and disparity at the national, state, and county levels. Seattle, WA: Casey Family Programs.

[79] Texas Department of Family and Protective Services Disproportionality webpage: http://www.dfps.state.tx.us/Child_Protection/Disproportionality/how_big.asp. Last visited September 17, 2019.

[80] Texas Department of Family and Protective Services, http://www.dfps.state.tx.us/Child_Protection/Disproportionality/default.asp. Last visited August 19, 2019.

[81] Courts Catalyzing Change Preliminary Protective Hearing Benchcard, located at http://www.ncjfcj.org/sites/default/files/CCC%20Bench%20Card%20Insertsfinal.pdf. Last visited August 19, 2019.

[82] National Factsheet on the Educational Outcomes of Children in Foster Care. Available online at http://www.fostercareandeducation.org/DesktopModules/Bring2mind/DMX/Download.aspx?portalid=0&EntryId=2100&Command=Core_Download. Last visited September 20, 2019.

[83] Texas Education Agency 2017-18 Federal Report Card for Texas Public Schools. Available online at https://tea.texas.gov/frc.aspx. Last visited July 25, 2019.

[84] Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008, Pub. L. No. 110-351. Available online at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-110publ351/pdf/PLAW-110publ351.pdf. Last visited September 20, 2019.

[85] Federal law references the local education agency (LEA). This term is synonymous with the school district or open-enrollment charter school. In Texas, the state education agency (SEA) is the Texas Education Agency.

[86] U.S Departments of Education and Health & Human Serv., Admin. for Children & Families (2014) joint letter regarding coordination between local education and child welfare agencies. Available online at: http://www2.ed.gov/about/inits/ed/foster-care/fostering-connections-letter.doc. Last visited September 20, 2019.

[87] Every Student Succeeds Act, Pub. L. No. 114–95. Available online at: https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-114s1177enr/pdf/BILLS-114s1177enr.pdf. Last visited September 20, 2019.

[88] DFPS and TEA Every Student Succeeds Act Foster Care Preliminary Implementation Q&A (2017). Available online at https://tea.texas.gov/ESSAfostercare_qa.pdf. Last visited July 23, 2019.

[89] McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act of 1987, Pub. L. No. 100-77. Available online at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/STATUTE-101/pdf/STATUTE-101-Pg482.pdf. Last visited September 20, 2019.

[90] U.S. Department of Education, Education for Homeless Children and Youths Program Non-Regulatory Guidance. Available online at https://www2.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/essa/160240ehcyguidance072716.pdf. Last Visited September 20, 2019.

[91] DFPS Education Decision-Maker Form 2085-E. Available online at https://www.dfps.state.tx.us/site_map/forms.asp. Last visited September 20, 2019.

[92] Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974, Pub. L. No. 93-380. Available at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/STATUTE-88/pdf/STATUTE-88-Pg484.pdf. Last visited September 20, 2019.

[93] Uninterrupted Scholars Act of 2013, Pub. L. No.112-278. Available at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-112s3472enr/pdf/BILLS-112s3472enr.pdf. Last visited September 20, 2019.

[94] See U.S. Dep't of Ed Guidance on the Uninterrupted Scholars Act. Please see Guidance Document, Questions 19, Q and 21 (2014). Available at https://www2.ed.gov/policy/gen/guid/fpco/ferpa/uninterrupted-scholars-act-guidance.pdf . Last visited September 20, 2019.

[95] Texas Judicial Branch Truancy Reform. Available at http://www.txcourts.gov/publications-training/training-materials/truancy-reform.aspx. Last visited September 20, 2019.

[96] Please see, Op Tex. Att'y Gen. No. MW–43 (1979), available at https://www2.texasattorneygeneral.gov/opinions/opinions/46white/op/1979/pdf/mw0043.pdf. Last visited September 20, 2019.

[97] Please see CPS Policy Handbook Section 15510, available at http://www.dfps.state.tx.us/handbooks/CPS/Files/CPS_pg_x15000.asp#CPS_15510. Last visited September 20, 2019.

[98] TEA Graduation Toolkit. Available online at https://tea.texas.gov/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=51539608601. Last visited September 20, 2019.

[99] See further, 19 Tex. Admin. Code § 74.1025.

[100] Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Pub. L. No. 93-112. Available online at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/STATUTE-87/pdf/STATUTE-87-Pg355.pdf. Last visited September 20, 2019.

[101] For more information about the ARD committee process, please see https://framework.esc18.net/Documents/ARD_Guide_ENG.pdf. Last visited September 20, 2019.

[102] Social Security Act § 477. Available online at http://www.ssa.gov/OP_Home/ssact/title04/0477.htm. Last visited September 20, 2019.

[103] Please see DFPS Transitional Living Services, available at https://www.dfps.state.tx.us/Child_Protection/Youth_and_Young_Adults/Transitional_Living/default.asp. Last visited September 20, 2019.

[104] The Texas Blueprint: Transforming Education Outcomes for Children and Youth in Foster Care. Available online at: http://texaschildrenscommission.gov/media/1119/thetexasblueprint.pdf. Last visited July 25,2019.

[105] Implementation Task Force Final Report. Available online at: http://texaschildrenscommission.gov/media/1175/tx-blueprint-childrens-comm-final-report-final-330pm-022415.pdf Last visited September 20, 2019.

[106] Foster Care & Student Success Resource Guide. Available online at http://www.tea.state.tx.us/FosterCareStudentSuccess/resource-guide.pdf. Last visited September 20, 2019.

[107] CASA Educational Advocacy Guidebook. Available online at http://texascasa.org/learning-center/resources/educational-advocacy-toolkit/. Last visited September 20, 2019.

[108] Texas Blueprint Implementation Data Workgroup Infographic. Available online at http://texaschildrenscommission.gov/media/1168/texas-blueprint-data-workgroup-infographic.pdf. Last visited September 20, 2019.

[109] Information Sharing between Child Welfare and Schools: Maintaining Privacy and Promoting Educational Success. Available online at http://texaschildrenscommission.gov/media/83653/confidentiality-guide-fall-2017-final.pdf. Last visited September 20, 2019.

[110] Transition Planning Guide for Students in Foster Care Receiving Special Education Services. Available online at http://texaschildrenscommission.gov/media/83877/transition-guide-july-2018-final.pdf. Last visited September 20, 2019.

[111] Texas Higher Education Information and Resource Guide for Foster Care Liaisons. Available online at http://texaschildrenscommission.gov/media/2075/he-liaisons-guide-updated-92618-online.pdf. Last visited September 20, 2019.

[112] DFPS Visitation Plan Template, located at: http://texaschildrenscommission.gov/media/1273/4-visitation-plan.pdf Last visited September 20, 2019.

[113] DFPS No Contact Visitation Plan template, located at: http://texaschildrenscommission.gov/media/1269/3-no-contact-visitation-plan.pdf. Last visited September 20, 2019.

[114] DFPS Visitation Best Practice Guide, located at: http://texaschildrenscommission.gov/media/1272/1-best-practice-guide-3.pdf Last visited September 20, 2019.

[115] Developed by DFPS and provided to parents at visitation, located at:

http://texaschildrenscommission.gov/media/1270/6-visitation-observation.pdf. Last visited September 20, 2019.

[116] DFPS Parent/Supportive Adult Visitation Record and Observation Form, located at:

http://texaschildrenscommission.gov/media/1270/6-visitation-observation.pdf Last visited September 20, 2019.

[117] Community First Choice programs overview available at: https://hhs.texas.gov/services/health/medicaid-chip/programs/community-first-choice. Last visited September 20, 2019.

[118] Turning Point Psychiatric Hospital diversion program overview available at: https://www.fostercaretx.com/content/dam/centene/fostercare/pdfs/SHP_20161544-Foster-Care-Turning-Point-Flyer-M-EN-ES-06102016.pdf. Last visited September 20, 2019.

[119] STAR Health PMUR Process for STAR Health Members FAQ and Stakeholder Manual, located at:

https://www.dfps.state.tx.us/Child_Protection/Medical_Services/documents/STAR_Health_PMUR_English.pdf

Last visited August 22, 2019.

[120] STAR Health PMUR Process for STAR Health Members FAQ and Stakeholder Manual, located at:

https://www.dfps.state.tx.us/Child_Protection/Medical_Services/documents/STAR_Health_PMUR_English.pdf

Last visited August 22, 2019.

[121] Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, Pub. L. No. 106-386, available online at: https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-106hr3244enr/pdf/BILLS-106hr3244enr.pdf. Last visited September 20, 2019.

[122] National Center for Missing and Exploited Children and National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges (2015). Missing Children, State Care, and Child Sex Trafficking: Engaging the Judiciary in Building a Collaborative Response. Reno, Nevada. Available online at: http://www.ncjfcj.org/sites/default/files/NCJFCJ_NCMEC_TAB_Final.pdf. Last visited July 19, 2019.

[123] For more information on the Office of the Attorney General of Texas Human Trafficking Prevention Task Force, please visit https://www.texasattorneygeneral.gov/cj/human-trafficking. Last visited September 20, 2019.

[124] Preventing Sex Trafficking and Strengthening Families Act of 2014, Pub. L. No: 113-183, available online at: https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-113publ183/pdf/PLAW-113publ183.pdf. Last visited September 20, 2019.

[125] The Psychotropic Medication Parameters for Children and Youth in Texas Public Behavioral Health (6th Edition) can be found online at: https://hhs.texas.gov/sites/default/files/documents/doing-business-with-hhs/provider-portal/facilities-regulation/psychiatric/psychotropic-medication-utilization-parameters.pdf. Last visited August 23, 2019.

[126] Department of Family and Protective Services, Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths Assessment (CANS), located at https://www.dfps.state.tx.us/Child_Protection/Medical_Services/CANS_Assessment.asp. Last visited August 7, 2019.

[127] STAR Health PMUR Process for STAR Health Members FAQ and Stakeholder Manual, located at:

https://www.dfps.state.tx.us/Child_Protection/Medical_Services/documents/STAR_Health_PMUR_English.pdf

Last visited August 23, 2019

[128] Update on the Use of Psychotropic Medications for Children in Texas Foster Care:

Fiscal Years 2002-2017, located at: https://www.dfps.state.tx.us/Child_Protection/Medical_Services/documents/ reports/2017-10_Update_on-Psychotropic_Medications_in_Texas_Foster_Childen.pdf. Last visited August 23, 2019.

[129] Maxwell, Jane Carlisle, Ph.D. Drug Early Warning System NDEWS) State of Texas Sentinel Community Site (SCS) Drug Use Patters and Trends, 2018, located at: https://socialwork.utexas.edu/dl/ari/texas-drug-trends-2018.pdf. Last visited September 3, 2019.

[130] Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series, No. 51 (2009), located at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/ NBK83257/. Last visited September 5, 2019.

[131] Maternal Mortality and Morbidity Task Force and Department of State Health Services Joint Biennial Report (September 2018) at page 10, located at: https://www.dshs.texas.gov/mch/pdf/MMMTFJointReport2018.pdf. Last visited September 3, 2019.

[132] Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2014). SAMHSA's Concept of Trauma and Guidance for a Trauma Informed Approach at 7. Retrieved from: https://store.samhsa.gov/system/files/sma14-4884.pdf. Last visited August 21, 2019.

[133] The National Child Traumatic Stress Network. About Child Trauma. Located at https://www.nctsn.org/what-is-child-trauma/about-child-trauma. Last visited August 22, 2019.

[134] Center for Disease Control. About the CDC-Kaiser ACE Study. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention /childabuseandneglect/acestudy/about.html. Last visited August 23, 2019.

[135] Center for Disease Control. Adverse Childhood Experiences. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/childabuseandneglect/acestudy/aboutace.html. Last visited August 23, 2019.

[136] The National Child Traumatic Stress Network. About Child Trauma. Located at https://www.nctsn.org/what-is-child-trauma/about-child-trauma. Last visited August 22, 2019.

[137] The National Child Traumatic Stress Network. Complex Trauma Effects. https://www.nctsn.org/what-is-child-trauma/trauma-types/complex-trauma/effects. Last visited August 23, 2019.

[138] The National Child Traumatic Stress Network. Complex Trauma Effects. https://www.nctsn.org/what-is-child-trauma/trauma-types/complex-trauma/effects. Last visited August 23, 2019.

[139] Building a Trauma-Informed Child Welfare System: A Blueprint, Children's Commission (February 2019) located at http://texaschildrenscommission.gov/media/84026/building-a-trauma-informed-child-welfare-system-a-blueprint-online.pdf . Last visited August 26, 2019.

[140] One example of an organizational assessment: The University of Kentucky Center on Trauma and Children (CTAC). The Secondary Traumatic Stress Informed Organization Assessment Tool (STSI-OA). http://www.uky.edu/CTAC/STSI-OA. (Last visited August 29, 2019).

[141] One example of a self-assessment: Professional Quality of Life Elements Theory and Measurement. Retrieved fromhttps://proqol.org/. (Last visited August 29, 2019).

[142] Building a Trauma-Informed Child Welfare System: A Blueprint, Children's Commission (February 2019) located at http://texaschildrenscommission.gov/media/84026/building-a-trauma-informed-child-welfare-system-a-blueprint-online.pdf. Last visited August 26, 2019.

[143] Trauma Informed Care Final Report, Meadows Mental Health Policy Institute (July 2017), located at http://texaschildrenscommission.gov/media/83503/trauma-informed-care-final-report.pdf. Last visited August 26, 2019.

[144] Texas Children Recovering From Trauma Final Project Report: A trauma-informed care transformation pilot under the Texas Department of State Health Services. Behavioral Health Services Section, Health and Human Services Commission, Austin, Texas. (2016, December), located at: http://sites.utexas.edu/mental-health-institute/files/2016/09/TXDeptStateHealthServices-SM06117-YR4-Final-Project-Report.pdf. Last visited August 22, 2019.

[145] Meeting the Needs of High Needs Children in the Texas Child Welfare System (November 2015), located at: https://www.dfps.state.tx.us/About_DFPS/Reports_and_Presentations/CPS/documents/2015/2015-12-03_Stephen_Group_High_Needs_Assessment.pdf. Last visited August 26, 2019

[146] Understanding Trauma-Informed Care in the Texas Child Welfare System: Data and Recommendations from the Field (October 2015), located at: http://texascasa.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/FINAL-Trauma-Survey-Report-10.5.15.pdf. Last visited August 26, 2019.

[147] Respecting the Needs of Children and Youth in Texas Foster Care: Acknowledging Trauma and Promoting Positive Mental Health throughout the System (December 2014), located at: http://texascasa.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Texas-CASA-Mental-Health-Task-Force-Report-final-webversion.pdf. Last visited August 22, 2019.

[148] Tex. Fam. Code Ann. § 263.302.

[149] Id.

[150] Id.

[151] Id.

[152] American Bar Association, Engaging Youth in Court: A National Analysis, 2015, http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/administrative/child_law/youthengagement/NationalAnalysisFinal.authcheckdam.pdf. Last visited September 20, 2019.

[153] http://texaschildrenscommission.gov/media/1324/41718-youth-presence-in-court-proceedings-report_final.pdf. Last visited September 20, 2019.