Texas Administrative Code Title 19

Education: As effective August 6, 2010

Chapter 110

Subchapter A

§110.10: Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading, Elementary, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010

(a) The provisions of §§110.11-110.16 of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2009-2010 school year.

(b) Students must develop the ability to comprehend and process material from a wide range of texts. Student expectations for Reading/Comprehension Skills as provided in this subsection are described for the appropriate grade level.

Attached Graphic

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.10 adopted to be effective September 4, 2008, 33 TexReg 7162; amended to be effective February 22, 2010, 35 TexReg 1461

§110.11: English Language Arts and Reading, Kindergarten, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in speaking and writing. The Reading strand is structured to reflect the major topic areas of the National Reading Panel Report. In Kindergarten, students engage in activities that build on their natural curiosity and prior knowledge to develop their reading, writing, and oral language skills.

(2) For students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition.

(A) English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation.

(B) For ELLs, comprehension of texts requires additional scaffolds to support comprehensible input. ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to further vocabulary development. Vocabulary needs to be taught in the context of connected discourse so that language is meaningful. ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in English differ from those in their native language. At the same time English learners are learning in English, the focus is on academic English, concepts, and the language structures specific to the content.

(C) During initial stages of English development, ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. However, English language learners' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and learn to learn in English simultaneously.

(3) To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations at Kindergarten as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4) To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Print Awareness. Students understand how English is written and printed. Students are expected to:

(A) recognize that spoken words can be represented by print for communication;

(B) identify upper- and lower-case letters;

(C) demonstrate the one-to-one correspondence between a spoken word and a printed word in text;

(D) recognize the difference between a letter and a printed word;

(E) recognize that sentences are comprised of words separated by spaces and demonstrate the awareness of word boundaries (e.g., through kinesthetic or tactile actions such as clapping and jumping);

(F) hold a book right side up, turn its pages correctly, and know that reading moves from top to bottom and left to right; and

(G) identify different parts of a book (e.g., front and back covers, title page).

(2) Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonological Awareness. Students display phonological awareness. Students are expected to:

(A) identify a sentence made up of a group of words;

(B) identify syllables in spoken words;

(C) orally generate rhymes in response to spoken words (e.g., "What rhymes with hat?");

(D) distinguish orally presented rhyming pairs of words from non-rhyming pairs;

(E) recognize spoken alliteration or groups of words that begin with the same spoken onset or initial sound (e.g., "baby boy bounces the ball");

(F) blend spoken onsets and rimes to form simple words (e.g., onset/c/ and rime/at/ make cat);

(G) blend spoken phonemes to form one-syllable words (e.g.,/m/.../a/.../n/ says man);

(H) isolate the initial sound in one-syllable spoken words; and

(I) segment spoken one-syllable words into two to three phonemes (e.g., dog:/d/.../o/.../g/).

(3) Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonics. Students use the relationships between letters and sounds, spelling patterns, and morphological analysis to decode written English. Students are expected to:

(A) identify the common sounds that letters represent;

(B) use knowledge of letter-sound relationships to decode regular words in text and independent of content (e.g., VC, CVC, CCVC, and CVCC words);

(C) recognize that new words are created when letters are changed, added, or deleted; and

(D) identify and read at least 25 high-frequency words from a commonly used list.

(4) Reading/Beginning Reading/Strategies. Students comprehend a variety of texts drawing on useful strategies as needed. Students are expected to:

(A) predict what might happen next in text based on the cover, title, and illustrations; and

(B) ask and respond to questions about texts read aloud.

(5) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it correctly when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A) identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, and locations;

(B) recognize that compound words are made up of shorter words;

(C) identify and sort pictures of objects into conceptual categories (e.g., colors, shapes, textures); and

(D) use a picture dictionary to find words.

(6) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) identify elements of a story including setting, character, and key events;

(B) discuss the big idea (theme) of a well-known folktale or fable and connect it to personal experience;

(C) recognize sensory details; and

(D) recognize recurring phrases and characters in traditional fairy tales, lullabies, and folktales from various cultures.

(7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to respond to rhythm and rhyme in poetry through identifying a regular beat and similarities in word sounds.

(8) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) retell a main event from a story read aloud; and

(B) describe characters in a story and the reasons for their actions.

(9) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the topic of an informational text heard.

(10) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text, and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) identify the topic and details in expository text heard or read, referring to the words and/or illustrations;

(B) retell important facts in a text, heard or read;

(C) discuss the ways authors group information in text; and

(D) use titles and illustrations to make predictions about text.

(11) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A) follow pictorial directions (e.g., recipes, science experiments); and

(B) identify the meaning of specific signs (e.g., traffic signs, warning signs).

(12) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to:

(A) identify different forms of media (e.g., advertisements, newspapers, radio programs); and

(B) identify techniques used in media (e.g., sound, movement).

(13) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing through class discussion;

(B) develop drafts by sequencing the action or details in the story;

(C) revise drafts by adding details or sentences;

(D) edit drafts by leaving spaces between letters and words; and

(E) share writing with others.

(14) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

(A) dictate or write sentences to tell a story and put the sentences in chronological sequence; and

(B) write short poems.

(15) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to dictate or write information for lists, captions, or invitations.

(16) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) understand and use the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking (with adult assistance):

(i) past and future tenses when speaking;

(ii) nouns (singular/plural);

(iii) descriptive words;

(iv) prepositions and simple prepositional phrases appropriately when speaking or writing (e.g., in, on, under, over); and

(v) pronouns (e.g., I, me);

(B) speak in complete sentences to communicate; and

(C) use complete simple sentences.

(17) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A) form upper- and lower-case letters legibly using the basic conventions of print (left-to-right and top-to-bottom progression);

(B) capitalize the first letter in a sentence; and

(C) use punctuation at the end of a sentence.

(18) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:

(A) use phonological knowledge to match sounds to letters;

(B) use letter-sound correspondences to spell consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words (e.g., "cut"); and

(C) write one's own name.

(19) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to:

(A) ask questions about topics of class-wide interest; and

(B) decide what sources or people in the classroom, school, library, or home can answer these questions.

(20) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to:

(A) gather evidence from provided text sources; and

(B) use pictures in conjunction with writing when documenting research.

(21) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) listen attentively by facing speakers and asking questions to clarify information; and

(B) follow oral directions that involve a short related sequence of actions.

(22) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to share information and ideas by speaking audibly and clearly using the conventions of language.

(23) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to follow agreed-upon rules for discussion, including taking turns and speaking one at a time.

§110.12: English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 1, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in speaking and writing. The Reading strand is structured to reflect the major topic areas of the National Reading Panel Report. In first grade, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should write and read (or be read to) on a daily basis.

(2) For students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition.

(A) English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation.

(B) For ELLs, comprehension of texts requires additional scaffolds to support comprehensible input. ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to further vocabulary development. Vocabulary needs to be taught in the context of connected discourse so that language is meaningful. ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in English differ from those in their native language. At the same time English learners are learning in English, the focus is on academic English, concepts, and the language structures specific to the content.

(C) During initial stages of English development, ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. However, English language learners' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and learn to learn in English simultaneously.

(3) To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations in Grade 1 as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4) To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Print Awareness. Students understand how English is written and printed. Students are expected to:

(A) recognize that spoken words are represented in written English by specific sequences of letters;

(B) identify upper- and lower-case letters;

(C) sequence the letters of the alphabet;

(D) recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., capitalization of first word, ending punctuation);

(E) read texts by moving from top to bottom of the page and tracking words from left to right with return sweep; and

(F) identify the information that different parts of a book provide (e.g., title, author, illustrator, table of contents).

(2) Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonological Awareness. Students display phonological awareness. Students are expected to:

(A) orally generate a series of original rhyming words using a variety of phonograms (e.g., -ake, -ant, -ain) and consonant blends (e.g., bl, st, tr);

(B) distinguish between long- and short-vowel sounds in spoken one-syllable words (e.g., bit/bite);

(C) recognize the change in a spoken word when a specified phoneme is added, changed, or removed (e.g.,/b/l/o/w/ to/g/l/o/w/);

(D) blend spoken phonemes to form one- and two-syllable words, including consonant blends (e.g., spr);

(E) isolate initial, medial, and final sounds in one-syllable spoken words; and

(F) segment spoken one-syllable words of three to five phonemes into individual phonemes (e.g., splat =/s/p/l/a/t/).

(3) Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonics. Students use the relationships between letters and sounds, spelling patterns, and morphological analysis to decode written English. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A) decode words in context and in isolation by applying common letter-sound correspondences, including:

(i) single letters (consonants) including b, c=/k/, c=/s/, d, f, g=/g/ (hard), g=/j/ (soft), h, j, k, l, m, n, p, qu=/kw/, r, s=/s/, s=/z/, t, v, w, x=/ks/, y, and z;

(ii) single letters (vowels) including short a, short e, short i, short o, short u, long a (a-e), long e (e), long i (i-e), long o (o-e), long u (u-e), y=long e, and y=long i;

(iii) consonant blends (e.g., bl, st);

(iv) consonant digraphs including ch, tch, sh, th=as in thing, wh, ng, ck, kn, -dge, and ph;

(v) vowel digraphs including oo as in foot, oo as in moon, ea as in eat, ea as in bread, ee, ow as in how, ow as in snow, ou as in out, ay,ai, aw, au, ew, oa, ie as in chief, ie as in pie, and -igh; and

(vi) vowel diphthongs including oy, oi, ou, and ow;

(B) combine sounds from letters and common spelling patterns (e.g., consonant blends, long- and short-vowel patterns) to create recognizable words;

(C) use common syllabication patterns to decode words, including:

(i) closed syllable (CVC) (e.g., mat, rab-bit);

(ii) open syllable (CV) (e.g., he, ba-by);

(iii) final stable syllable (e.g., ap-ple, a-ble);

(iv) vowel-consonant-silent "e" words (VCe) (e.g., kite, hide);

(v) vowel digraphs and diphthongs (e.g., boy-hood, oat-meal); and

(vi) r-controlled vowel sounds (e.g., tar); including er, ir, ur, ar, and or);

(D) decode words with common spelling patterns (e.g., -ink, -onk, -ick);

(E) read base words with inflectional endings (e.g., plurals, past tenses);

(F) use knowledge of the meaning of base words to identify and read common compound words (e.g., football, popcorn, daydream);

(G) identify and read contractions (e.g., isn't, can't);

(H) identify and read at least 100 high-frequency words from a commonly used list; and

(I) monitor accuracy of decoding.

(4) Reading/Beginning Reading/Strategies. Students comprehend a variety of texts drawing on useful strategies as needed. Students are expected to:

(A) confirm predictions about what will happen next in text by "reading the part that tells";

(B) ask relevant questions, seek clarification, and locate facts and details about stories and other texts; and

(C) establish purpose for reading selected texts and monitor comprehension, making corrections and adjustments when that understanding breaks down (e.g., identifying clues, using background knowledge, generating questions, re-reading a portion aloud).

(5) Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to read aloud grade-level appropriate text with fluency (rate, accuracy, expression, appropriate phrasing) and comprehension.

(6) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A) identify words that name actions (verbs) and words that name persons, places, or things (nouns);

(B) determine the meaning of compound words using knowledge of the meaning of their individual component words (e.g., lunchtime);

(C) determine what words mean from how they are used in a sentence, either heard or read;

(D) identify and sort words into conceptual categories (e.g., opposites, living things); and

(E) alphabetize a series of words to the first or second letter and use a dictionary to find words.

(7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) connect the meaning of a well-known story or fable to personal experiences; and

(B) explain the function of recurring phrases (e.g., "Once upon a time" or "They lived happily ever after") in traditional folk- and fairy tales.

(8) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to respond to and use rhythm, rhyme, and alliteration in poetry.

(9) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) describe the plot (problem and solution) and retell a story's beginning, middle, and end with attention to the sequence of events; and

(B) describe characters in a story and the reasons for their actions and feelings.

(10) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and respond by providing evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to determine whether a story is true or a fantasy and explain why.

(11) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to recognize sensory details in literary text.

(12) Reading/Comprehension of Text/Independent Reading. Students read independently for sustained periods of time and produce evidence of their reading. Students are expected to read independently for a sustained period of time.

(13) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the topic and explain the author's purpose in writing about the text.

(14) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) restate the main idea, heard or read;

(B) identify important facts or details in text, heard or read;

(C) retell the order of events in a text by referring to the words and/or illustrations; and

(D) use text features (e.g., title, tables of contents, illustrations) to locate specific information in text.

(15) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A) follow written multi-step directions with picture cues to assist with understanding; and

(B) explain the meaning of specific signs and symbols (e.g., map features).

(16) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A) recognize different purposes of media (e.g., informational, entertainment) (with adult assistance); and

(B) identify techniques used in media (e.g., sound, movement).

(17) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing (e.g., drawing, sharing ideas, listing key ideas);

(B) develop drafts by sequencing ideas through writing sentences;

(C) revise drafts by adding or deleting a word, phrase, or sentence;

(D) edit drafts for grammar, punctuation, and spelling using a teacher-developed rubric; and

(E) publish and share writing with others.

(18) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

(A) write brief stories that include a beginning, middle, and end; and

(B) write short poems that convey sensory details.

(19) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A) write brief compositions about topics of interest to the student;

(B) write short letters that put ideas in a chronological or logical sequence and use appropriate conventions (e.g., date, salutation, closing); and

(C) write brief comments on literary or informational texts.

(20) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) understand and use the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i) verbs (past, present, and future);

(ii) nouns (singular/plural, common/proper);

(iii) adjectives (e.g., descriptive: green, tall);

(iv) adverbs (e.g., time: before, next);

(v) prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vi) pronouns (e.g., I, me); and

(vii) time-order transition words;

(B) speak in complete sentences with correct subject-verb agreement; and

(C) ask questions with appropriate subject-verb inversion.

(21) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A) form upper- and lower-case letters legibly in text, using the basic conventions of print (left-to-right and top-to-bottom progression), including spacing between words and sentences;

(B) recognize and use basic capitalization for:

(i) the beginning of sentences;

(ii) the pronoun "I"; and

(iii) names of people; and

(C) recognize and use punctuation marks at the end of declarative, exclamatory, and interrogative sentences.

(22) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:

(A) use phonological knowledge to match sounds to letters to construct known words;

(B) use letter-sound patterns to spell:

(i) consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words;

(ii) consonant-vowel-consonant-silent e (CVCe) words (e.g., "hope"); and

(iii) one-syllable words with consonant blends (e.g., "drop");

(C) spell high-frequency words from a commonly used list;

(D) spell base words with inflectional endings (e.g., adding "s" to make words plurals); and

(E) use resources to find correct spellings.

(23) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to:

(A) generate a list of topics of class-wide interest and formulate open-ended questions about one or two of the topics; and

(B) decide what sources of information might be relevant to answer these questions.

(24) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to:

(A) gather evidence from available sources (natural and personal) as well as from interviews with local experts;

(B) use text features (e.g., table of contents, alphabetized index) in age-appropriate reference works (e.g., picture dictionaries) to locate information; and

(C) record basic information in simple visual formats (e.g., notes, charts, picture graphs, diagrams).

(25) Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to revise the topic as a result of answers to initial research questions.

(26) Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to create a visual display or dramatization to convey the results of the research.

(27) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) listen attentively to speakers and ask relevant questions to clarify information; and

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a short related sequence of actions.

(28) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to share information and ideas about the topic under discussion, speaking clearly at an appropriate pace, using the conventions of language.

(29) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to follow agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, and making appropriate contributions.

§110.13: English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 2, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in speaking and writing. The Reading strand is structured to reflect the major topic areas of the National Reading Panel Report. In second grade, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should write and read (or be read to) on a daily basis.

(2) For students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition.

(A) English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation.

(B) For ELLs, comprehension of texts requires additional scaffolds to support comprehensible input. ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to further vocabulary development. Vocabulary needs to be taught in the context of connected discourse so that language is meaningful. ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in English differ from those in their native language. At the same time English learners are learning in English, the focus is on academic English, concepts, and the language structures specific to the content.

(C) During initial stages of English development, ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. However, English language learners' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and learn to learn in English simultaneously.

(3) To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations at Grade 2 as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4) To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Print Awareness. Students understand how English is written and printed. Students are expected to distinguish features of a sentence (e.g., capitalization of first word, ending punctuation, commas, quotation marks).

(2) Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonics. Students use the relationships between letters and sounds, spelling patterns, and morphological analysis to decode written English. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A) decode multisyllabic words in context and independent of context by applying common letter-sound correspondences including:

(i) single letters (consonants and vowels);

(ii) consonant blends (e.g., thr, spl);

(iii) consonant digraphs (e.g., ng, ck, ph); and

(iv) vowel digraphs (e.g., ie, ue, ew) and diphthongs (e.g., oi, ou);

(B) use common syllabication patterns to decode words including:

(i) closed syllable (CVC) (e.g., pic-nic, mon-ster);

(ii) open syllable (CV) (e.g., ti-ger);

(iii) final stable syllable (e.g., sta-tion, tum-ble);

(iv) vowel-consonant-silent "e" words (VCe) (e.g., in-vite, cape);

(v) r-controlled vowels (e.g., per-fect, cor-ner); and

(vi) vowel digraphs and diphthongs (e.g., boy-hood, oat-meal);

(C) decode words by applying knowledge of common spelling patterns (e.g., -ight, -ant);

(D) read words with common prefixes (e.g., un-, dis-) and suffixes (e.g., -ly, -less, -ful);

(E) identify and read abbreviations (e.g., Mr., Ave.);

(F) identify and read contractions (e.g., haven't, it's);

(G) identify and read at least 300 high-frequency words from a commonly used list; and

(H) monitor accuracy of decoding.

(3) Reading/Beginning Reading/Strategies. Students comprehend a variety of texts drawing on useful strategies as needed. Students are expected to:

(A) use ideas (e.g., illustrations, titles, topic sentences, key words, and foreshadowing) to make and confirm predictions;

(B) ask relevant questions, seek clarification, and locate facts and details about stories and other texts and support answers with evidence from text; and

(C) establish purpose for reading selected texts and monitor comprehension, making corrections and adjustments when that understanding breaks down (e.g., identifying clues, using background knowledge, generating questions, re-reading a portion aloud).

(4) Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to read aloud grade-level appropriate text with fluency (rate, accuracy, expression, appropriate phrasing) and comprehension.

(5) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A) use prefixes and suffixes to determine the meaning of words (e.g., allow/disallow);

(B) use context to determine the relevant meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple-meaning words;

(C) identify and use common words that are opposite (antonyms) or similar (synonyms) in meaning; and

(D) alphabetize a series of words and use a dictionary or a glossary to find words.

(6) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) identify moral lessons as themes in well-known fables, legends, myths, or stories; and

(B) compare different versions of the same story in traditional and contemporary folktales with respect to their characters, settings, and plot.

(7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to describe how rhyme, rhythm, and repetition interact to create images in poetry.

(8) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the elements of dialogue and use them in informal plays.

(9) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) describe similarities and differences in the plots and settings of several works by the same author; and

(B) describe main characters in works of fiction, including their traits, motivations, and feelings.

(10) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and respond by providing evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to distinguish between fiction and nonfiction.

(11) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to recognize that some words and phrases have literal and non-literal meanings (e.g., take steps).

(12) Reading/Comprehension of Text/Independent Reading. Students read independently for sustained periods of time and produce evidence of their reading. Students are expected to read independently for a sustained period of time and paraphrase what the reading was about, maintaining meaning.

(13) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the topic and explain the author's purpose in writing the text.

(14) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about and understand expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) identify the main idea in a text and distinguish it from the topic;

(B) locate the facts that are clearly stated in a text;

(C) describe the order of events or ideas in a text; and

(D) use text features (e.g., table of contents, index, headings) to locate specific information in text.

(15) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Text. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A) follow written multi-step directions; and

(B) use common graphic features to assist in the interpretation of text (e.g., captions, illustrations).

(16) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A) recognize different purposes of media (e.g., informational, entertainment);

(B) describe techniques used to create media messages (e.g., sound, graphics); and

(C) identify various written conventions for using digital media (e.g., e-mail, website, video game).

(17) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing (e.g., drawing, sharing ideas, listing key ideas);

(B) develop drafts by sequencing ideas through writing sentences;

(C) revise drafts by adding or deleting words, phrases, or sentences;

(D) edit drafts for grammar, punctuation, and spelling using a teacher-developed rubric; and

(E) publish and share writing with others.

(18) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

(A) write brief stories that include a beginning, middle, and end; and

(B) write short poems that convey sensory details.

(19) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A) write brief compositions about topics of interest to the student;

(B) write short letters that put ideas in a chronological or logical sequence and use appropriate conventions (e.g., date, salutation, closing); and

(C) write brief comments on literary or informational texts.

(20) Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write persuasive statements about issues that are important to the student for the appropriate audience in the school, home, or local community.

(21) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) understand and use the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i) verbs (past, present, and future);

(ii) nouns (singular/plural, common/proper);

(iii) adjectives (e.g., descriptive: old, wonderful; articles: a, an, the);

(iv) adverbs (e.g., time: before, next; manner: carefully, beautifully);

(v) prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vi) pronouns (e.g., he, him); and

(vii) time-order transition words;

(B) use complete sentences with correct subject-verb agreement; and

(C) distinguish among declarative and interrogative sentences.

(22) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A) write legibly leaving appropriate margins for readability;

(B) use capitalization for:

(i) proper nouns;

(ii) months and days of the week; and

(iii) the salutation and closing of a letter; and

(C) recognize and use punctuation marks, including:

(i) ending punctuation in sentences;

(ii) apostrophes and contractions; and

(iii) apostrophes and possessives.

(23) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:

(A) use phonological knowledge to match sounds to letters to construct unknown words;

(B) spell words with common orthographic patterns and rules:

(i) complex consonants (e.g., hard and soft c and g, ck);

(ii) r-controlled vowels;

(iii) long vowels (e.g., VCe-hope); and

(iv) vowel digraphs (e.g., oo-book, fool, ee-feet), diphthongs (e.g., ou-out, ow-cow, oi-coil, oy-toy);

(C) spell high-frequency words from a commonly used list;

(D) spell base words with inflectional endings (e.g., -ing and -ed);

(E) spell simple contractions (e.g., isn't, aren't, can't); and

(F) use resources to find correct spellings.

(24) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A) generate a list of topics of class-wide interest and formulate open-ended questions about one or two of the topics; and

(B) decide what sources of information might be relevant to answer these questions.

(25) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A) gather evidence from available sources (natural and personal) as well as from interviews with local experts;

(B) use text features (e.g., table of contents, alphabetized index, headings) in age-appropriate reference works (e.g., picture dictionaries) to locate information; and

(C) record basic information in simple visual formats (e.g., notes, charts, picture graphs, diagrams).

(26) Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to revise the topic as a result of answers to initial research questions.

(27) Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to create a visual display or dramatization to convey the results of the research.

(28) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) listen attentively to speakers and ask relevant questions to clarify information; and

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a short related sequence of actions.

(29) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to share information and ideas that focus on the topic under discussion, speaking clearly at an appropriate pace, using the conventions of language.

(30) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to follow agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, and making appropriate contributions.

§110.14: English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 3, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In third grade, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read and write on a daily basis.

(2) For students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition.

(A) English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation.

(B) For ELLs, comprehension of texts requires additional scaffolds to support comprehensible input. ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to further vocabulary development. Vocabulary needs to be taught in the context of connected discourse so that language is meaningful. ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in English differ from those in their native language. At the same time English learners are learning in English, the focus is on academic English, concepts, and the language structures specific to the content.

(C) During initial stages of English development, ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. However, English language learners' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and learn to learn in English simultaneously.

(3) To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations at Grade 3 as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4) To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonics. Students use the relationships between letters and sounds, spelling patterns, and morphological analysis to decode written English. Students are expected to:

(A) decode multisyllabic words in context and independent of context by applying common spelling patterns including:

(i) dropping the final "e" and add endings such as -ing, -ed, or -able (e.g., use, using, used, usable);

(ii) doubling final consonants when adding an ending (e.g., hop to hopping);

(iii) changing the final "y" to "i" (e.g., baby to babies);

(iv) using knowledge of common prefixes and suffixes (e.g., dis-, -ly); and

(v) using knowledge of derivational affixes (e.g., -de, -ful, -able);

(B) use common syllabication patterns to decode words including:

(i) closed syllable (CVC) (e.g., mag-net, splen-did);

(ii) open syllable (CV) (e.g., ve-to);

(iii) final stable syllable (e.g., puz-zle, con-trac-tion);

(iv) r-controlled vowels (e.g., fer-ment, car-pool); and

(v) vowel digraphs and diphthongs (e.g., ei-ther);

(C) decode words applying knowledge of common spelling patterns (e.g., -eigh, -ought);

(D) identify and read contractions (e.g., I'd, won't); and

(E) monitor accuracy in decoding.

(2) Reading/Beginning Reading/Strategies. Students comprehend a variety of texts drawing on useful strategies as needed. Students are expected to:

(A) use ideas (e.g., illustrations, titles, topic sentences, key words, and foreshadowing clues) to make and confirm predictions;

(B) ask relevant questions, seek clarification, and locate facts and details about stories and other texts and support answers with evidence from text; and

(C) establish purpose for reading selected texts and monitor comprehension, making corrections and adjustments when that understanding breaks down (e.g., identifying clues, using background knowledge, generating questions, re-reading a portion aloud).

(3) Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to read aloud grade-level appropriate text with fluency (rate, accuracy, expression, appropriate phrasing) and comprehension.

(4) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A) identify the meaning of common prefixes (e.g., in-, dis-) and suffixes (e.g., -full, -less), and know how they change the meaning of roots;

(B) use context to determine the relevant meaning of unfamiliar words or distinguish among multiple meaning words and homographs;

(C) identify and use antonyms, synonyms, homographs, and homophones;

(D) identify and apply playful uses of language (e.g., tongue twisters, palindromes, riddles); and

(E) alphabetize a series of words to the third letter and use a dictionary or a glossary to determine the meanings, syllabication, and pronunciation of unknown words.

(5) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) paraphrase the themes and supporting details of fables, legends, myths, or stories; and

(B) compare and contrast the settings in myths and traditional folktales.

(6) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to describe the characteristics of various forms of poetry and how they create imagery (e.g., narrative poetry, lyrical poetry, humorous poetry, free verse).

(7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the elements of plot and character as presented through dialogue in scripts that are read, viewed, written, or performed.

(8) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) sequence and summarize the plot's main events and explain their influence on future events;

(B) describe the interaction of characters including their relationships and the changes they undergo; and

(C) identify whether the narrator or speaker of a story is first or third person.

(9) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and respond by providing evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the difference in point of view between a biography and autobiography.

(10) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify language that creates a graphic visual experience and appeals to the senses.

(11) Reading/Comprehension of Text/Independent Reading. Students read independently for sustained periods of time and produce evidence of their reading. Students are expected to read independently for a sustained period of time and paraphrase what the reading was about, maintaining meaning and logical order (e.g., generate a reading log or journal; participate in book talks).

(12) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the topic and locate the author's stated purposes in writing the text.

(13) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) identify the details or facts that support the main idea;

(B) draw conclusions from the facts presented in text and support those assertions with textual evidence;

(C) identify explicit cause and effect relationships among ideas in texts; and

(D) use text features (e.g., bold print, captions, key words, italics) to locate information and make and verify predictions about contents of text.

(14) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to identify what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do.

(15) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A) follow and explain a set of written multi-step directions; and

(B) locate and use specific information in graphic features of text.

(16) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A) understand how communication changes when moving from one genre of media to another;

(B) explain how various design techniques used in media influence the message (e.g., shape, color, sound); and

(C) compare various written conventions used for digital media (e.g., language in an informal e-mail vs. language in a web-based news article).

(17) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for conveying the intended meaning to an audience and generating ideas through a range of strategies (e.g., brainstorming, graphic organizers, logs, journals);

(B) develop drafts by categorizing ideas and organizing them into paragraphs;

(C) revise drafts for coherence, organization, use of simple and compound sentences, and audience;

(D) edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling using a teacher-developed rubric; and

(E) publish written work for a specific audience.

(18) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

(A) write imaginative stories that build the plot to a climax and contain details about the characters and setting; and

(B) write poems that convey sensory details using the conventions of poetry (e.g., rhyme, meter, patterns of verse).

(19) Writing. Students write about their own experiences. Students are expected to write about important personal experiences.

(20) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A) create brief compositions that:

(i) establish a central idea in a topic sentence;

(ii) include supporting sentences with simple facts, details, and explanations; and

(iii) contain a concluding statement;

(B) write letters whose language is tailored to the audience and purpose (e.g., a thank you note to a friend) and that use appropriate conventions (e.g., date, salutation, closing); and

(C) write responses to literary or expository texts that demonstrate an understanding of the text.

(21) Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write persuasive essays for appropriate audiences that establish a position and use supporting details.

(22) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i) verbs (past, present, and future);

(ii) nouns (singular/plural, common/proper);

(iii) adjectives (e.g., descriptive: wooden, rectangular; limiting: this, that; articles: a, an, the);

(iv) adverbs (e.g., time: before, next; manner: carefully, beautifully);

(v) prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vi) possessive pronouns (e.g., his, hers, theirs);

(vii) coordinating conjunctions (e.g., and, or, but); and

(viii) time-order transition words and transitions that indicate a conclusion;

(B) use the complete subject and the complete predicate in a sentence; and

(C) use complete simple and compound sentences with correct subject-verb agreement.

(23) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A) write legibly in cursive script with spacing between words in a sentence;

(B) use capitalization for:

(i) geographical names and places;

(ii) historical periods; and

(iii) official titles of people;

(C) recognize and use punctuation marks including:

(i) apostrophes in contractions and possessives; and

(ii) commas in series and dates; and

(D) use correct mechanics including paragraph indentations.

(24) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:

(A) use knowledge of letter sounds, word parts, word segmentation, and syllabication to spell;

(B) spell words with more advanced orthographic patterns and rules:

(i) consonant doubling when adding an ending;

(ii) dropping final "e" when endings are added (e.g., -ing, -ed);

(iii) changing y to i before adding an ending;

(iv) double consonants in middle of words;

(v) complex consonants (e.g., scr-, -dge, -tch); and

(vi) abstract vowels (e.g., ou as in could, touch, through, bought);

(C) spell high-frequency and compound words from a commonly used list;

(D) spell words with common syllable constructions (e.g., closed, open, final stable syllable);

(E) spell single syllable homophones (e.g., bear/bare; week/weak; road/rode);

(F) spell complex contractions (e.g., should've, won't); and

(G) use print and electronic resources to find and check correct spellings.

(25) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A) generate research topics from personal interests or by brainstorming with others, narrow to one topic, and formulate open-ended questions about the major research topic; and

(B) generate a research plan for gathering relevant information (e.g., surveys, interviews, encyclopedias) about the major research question.

(26) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A) follow the research plan to collect information from multiple sources of information, both oral and written, including:

(i) student-initiated surveys, on-site inspections, and interviews;

(ii) data from experts, reference texts, and online searches; and

(iii) visual sources of information (e.g., maps, timelines, graphs) where appropriate;

(B) use skimming and scanning techniques to identify data by looking at text features (e.g., bold print, captions, key words, italics);

(C) take simple notes and sort evidence into provided categories or an organizer;

(D) identify the author, title, publisher, and publication year of sources; and

(E) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism and identify the importance of citing valid and reliable sources.

(27) Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to improve the focus of research as a result of consulting expert sources (e.g., reference librarians and local experts on the topic).

(28) Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to draw conclusions through a brief written explanation and create a works-cited page from notes, including the author, title, publisher, and publication year for each source used.

(29) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) listen attentively to speakers, ask relevant questions, and make pertinent comments; and

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a series of related sequences of action.

(30) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to speak coherently about the topic under discussion, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(31) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate in teacher- and student-led discussions by posing and answering questions with appropriate detail and by providing suggestions that build upon the ideas of others.

§110.15: English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 4, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In fourth grade, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read and write on a daily basis.

(2) For students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition.

(A) English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation.

(B) For ELLs, comprehension of texts requires additional scaffolds to support comprehensible input. ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to further vocabulary development. Vocabulary needs to be taught in the context of connected discourse so that language is meaningful. ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in English differ from those in their native language. At the same time English learners are learning in English, the focus is on academic English, concepts, and the language structures specific to the content.

(C) During initial stages of English development, ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. However, English language learners' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and learn to learn in English simultaneously.

(3) To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations at Grade 4 as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4) To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to read aloud grade-level stories with fluency (rate, accuracy, expression, appropriate phrasing) and comprehension.

(2) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A) determine the meaning of grade-level academic English words derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

(B) use the context of the sentence (e.g., in-sentence example or definition) to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple meaning words;

(C) complete analogies using knowledge of antonyms and synonyms (e.g., boy:girl as male:____ or girl:woman as boy:_____);

(D) identify the meaning of common idioms; and

(E) use a dictionary or glossary to determine the meanings, syllabication, and pronunciation of unknown words.

(3) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) summarize and explain the lesson or message of a work of fiction as its theme; and

(B) compare and contrast the adventures or exploits of characters (e.g., the trickster) in traditional and classical literature.

(4) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain how the structural elements of poetry (e.g., rhyme, meter, stanzas, line breaks) relate to form (e.g., lyrical poetry, free verse).

(5) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to describe the structural elements particular to dramatic literature.

(6) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) sequence and summarize the plot's main events and explain their influence on future events;

(B) describe the interaction of characters including their relationships and the changes they undergo; and

(C) identify whether the narrator or speaker of a story is first or third person.

(7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify similarities and differences between the events and characters' experiences in a fictional work and the actual events and experiences described in an author's biography or autobiography.

(8) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the author's use of similes and metaphors to produce imagery.

(9) Reading/Comprehension of Text/Independent Reading. Students read independently for sustained periods of time and produce evidence of their reading. Students are expected to read independently for a sustained period of time and paraphrase what the reading was about, maintaining meaning and logical order (e.g., generate a reading log or journal; participate in book talks).

(10) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the difference between a stated and an implied purpose for an expository text.

(11) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) summarize the main idea and supporting details in text in ways that maintain meaning;

(B) distinguish fact from opinion in a text and explain how to verify what is a fact;

(C) describe explicit and implicit relationships among ideas in texts organized by cause-and-effect, sequence, or comparison; and

(D) use multiple text features (e.g., guide words, topic and concluding sentences) to gain an overview of the contents of text and to locate information.

(12) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to explain how an author uses language to present information to influence what the reader thinks or does.

(13) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A) determine the sequence of activities needed to carry out a procedure (e.g., following a recipe); and

(B) explain factual information presented graphically (e.g., charts, diagrams, graphs, illustrations).

(14) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A) explain the positive and negative impacts of advertisement techniques used in various genres of media to impact consumer behavior;

(B) explain how various design techniques used in media influence the message (e.g., pacing, close-ups, sound effects); and

(C) compare various written conventions used for digital media (e.g., language in an informal e-mail vs. language in a web-based news article).

(15) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for conveying the intended meaning to an audience and generating ideas through a range of strategies (e.g., brainstorming, graphic organizers, logs, journals);

(B) develop drafts by categorizing ideas and organizing them into paragraphs;

(C) revise drafts for coherence, organization, use of simple and compound sentences, and audience;

(D) edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling using a teacher-developed rubric; and

(E) revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for a specific audience.

(16) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

(A) write imaginative stories that build the plot to a climax and contain details about the characters and setting; and

(B) write poems that convey sensory details using the conventions of poetry (e.g., rhyme, meter, patterns of verse).

(17) Writing. Students write about their own experiences. Students are expected to write about important personal experiences.

(18) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A) create brief compositions that:

(i) establish a central idea in a topic sentence;

(ii) include supporting sentences with simple facts, details, and explanations; and

(iii) contain a concluding statement;

(B) write letters whose language is tailored to the audience and purpose (e.g., a thank you note to a friend) and that use appropriate conventions (e.g., date, salutation, closing); and

(C) write responses to literary or expository texts and provide evidence from the text to demonstrate understanding.

(19) Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write persuasive essays for appropriate audiences that establish a position and use supporting details.

(20) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i) verbs (irregular verbs);

(ii) nouns (singular/plural, common/proper);

(iii) adjectives (e.g., descriptive, including purpose: sleeping bag, frying pan) and their comparative and superlative forms (e.g., fast, faster, fastest);

(iv) adverbs (e.g., frequency: usually, sometimes; intensity: almost, a lot);

(v) prepositions and prepositional phrases to convey location, time, direction, or to provide details;

(vi) reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves);

(vii) correlative conjunctions (e.g., either/or, neither/nor); and

(viii) use time-order transition words and transitions that indicate a conclusion;

(B) use the complete subject and the complete predicate in a sentence; and

(C) use complete simple and compound sentences with correct subject-verb agreement.

(21) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A) write legibly by selecting cursive script or manuscript printing as appropriate;

(B) use capitalization for:

(i) historical events and documents;

(ii) titles of books, stories, and essays; and

(iii) languages, races, and nationalities; and

(C) recognize and use punctuation marks including:

(i) commas in compound sentences; and

(ii) quotation marks.

(22) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:

(A) spell words with more advanced orthographic patterns and rules:

(i) plural rules (e.g., words ending in f as in leaf, leaves; adding -es);

(ii) irregular plurals (e.g., man/men, foot/feet, child/children);

(iii) double consonants in middle of words;

(iv) other ways to spell sh (e.g., -sion, -tion, -cian); and

(v) silent letters (e.g., knee, wring);

(B) spell base words and roots with affixes (e.g., -ion, -ment, -ly, dis-, pre-);

(C) spell commonly used homophones (e.g., there, they're, their; two, too, to); and

(D) use spelling patterns and rules and print and electronic resources to determine and check correct spellings.

(23) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A) generate research topics from personal interests or by brainstorming with others, narrow to one topic, and formulate open-ended questions about the major research topic; and

(B) generate a research plan for gathering relevant information (e.g., surveys, interviews, encyclopedias) about the major research question.

(24) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A) follow the research plan to collect information from multiple sources of information both oral and written, including:

(i) student-initiated surveys, on-site inspections, and interviews;

(ii) data from experts, reference texts, and online searches; and

(iii) visual sources of information (e.g., maps, timelines, graphs) where appropriate;

(B) use skimming and scanning techniques to identify data by looking at text features (e.g., bold print, italics);

(C) take simple notes and sort evidence into provided categories or an organizer;

(D) identify the author, title, publisher, and publication year of sources; and

(E) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism and identify the importance of citing valid and reliable sources.

(25) Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to improve the focus of research as a result of consulting expert sources (e.g., reference librarians and local experts on the topic).

(26) Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to draw conclusions through a brief written explanation and create a works-cited page from notes, including the author, title, publisher, and publication year for each source used.

(27) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) listen attentively to speakers, ask relevant questions, and make pertinent comments; and

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a series of related sequences of action.

(28) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to express an opinion supported by accurate information, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, and enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(29) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate in teacher- and student-led discussions by posing and answering questions with appropriate detail and by providing suggestions that build upon the ideas of others.

§110.16: English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 5, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In fifth grade, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read and write on a daily basis.

(2) For students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition.

(A) English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation.

(B) For ELLs, comprehension of texts requires additional scaffolds to support comprehensible input. ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to further vocabulary development. Vocabulary needs to be taught in the context of connected discourse so that language is meaningful. ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in English differ from those in their native language. At the same time English learners are learning in English, the focus is on academic English, concepts, and the language structures specific to the content.

(C) During initial stages of English development, ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. However, English language learners' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and learn to learn in English simultaneously.

(3) To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations at Grade 5 as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4) To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to read aloud grade-level stories with fluency (rate, accuracy, expression, appropriate phrasing) and comprehension.

(2) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A) determine the meaning of grade-level academic English words derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

(B) use context (e.g., in-sentence restatement) to determine or clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or multiple meaning words;

(C) produce analogies with known antonyms and synonyms;

(D) identify and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and other sayings; and

(E) use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to determine the meanings, syllabication, pronunciations, alternate word choices, and parts of speech of words.

(3) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) compare and contrast the themes or moral lessons of several works of fiction from various cultures;

(B) describe the phenomena explained in origin myths from various cultures; and

(C) explain the effect of a historical event or movement on the theme of a work of literature.

(4) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze how poets use sound effects (e.g., alliteration, internal rhyme, onomatopoeia, rhyme scheme) to reinforce meaning in poems.

(5) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the similarities and differences between an original text and its dramatic adaptation.

(6) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) describe incidents that advance the story or novel, explaining how each incident gives rise to or foreshadows future events;

(B) explain the roles and functions of characters in various plots, including their relationships and conflicts; and

(C) explain different forms of third-person points of view in stories.

(7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the literary language and devices used in biographies and autobiographies, including how authors present major events in a person's life.

(8) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to evaluate the impact of sensory details, imagery, and figurative language in literary text.

(9) Reading/Comprehension of Text/Independent Reading. Students read independently for sustained periods of time and produce evidence of their reading. Students are expected to read independently for a sustained period of time and summarize or paraphrase what the reading was about, maintaining meaning and logical order (e.g., generate a reading log or journal; participate in book talks).

(10) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to draw conclusions from the information presented by an author and evaluate how well the author's purpose was achieved.

(11) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) summarize the main ideas and supporting details in a text in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(B) determine the facts in text and verify them through established methods;

(C) analyze how the organizational pattern of a text (e.g., cause-and-effect, compare-and-contrast, sequential order, logical order, classification schemes) influences the relationships among the ideas;

(D) use multiple text features and graphics to gain an overview of the contents of text and to locate information; and

(E) synthesize and make logical connections between ideas within a text and across two or three texts representing similar or different genres.

(12) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:

(A) identify the author's viewpoint or position and explain the basic relationships among ideas (e.g., parallelism, comparison, causality) in the argument; and

(B) recognize exaggerated, contradictory, or misleading statements in text.

(13) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A) interpret details from procedural text to complete a task, solve a problem, or perform procedures; and

(B) interpret factual or quantitative information presented in maps, charts, illustrations, graphs, timelines, tables, and diagrams.

(14) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A) explain how messages conveyed in various forms of media are presented differently (e.g., documentaries, online information, televised news);

(B) consider the difference in techniques used in media (e.g., commercials, documentaries, news);

(C) identify the point of view of media presentations; and

(D) analyze various digital media venues for levels of formality and informality.

(15) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for conveying the intended meaning to an audience, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B) develop drafts by choosing an appropriate organizational strategy (e.g., sequence of events, cause-effect, compare-contrast) and building on ideas to create a focused, organized, and coherent piece of writing;

(C) revise drafts to clarify meaning, enhance style, include simple and compound sentences, and improve transitions by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging sentences or larger units of text after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed;

(D) edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E) revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(16) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

(A) write imaginative stories that include:

(i) a clearly defined focus, plot, and point of view;

(ii) a specific, believable setting created through the use of sensory details; and

(iii) dialogue that develops the story; and

(B) write poems using:

(i) poetic techniques (e.g., alliteration, onomatopoeia);

(ii) figurative language (e.g., similes, metaphors); and

(iii) graphic elements (e.g., capital letters, line length).

(17) Writing. Students write about their own experiences. Students are expected to write a personal narrative that conveys thoughts and feelings about an experience.

(18) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A) create multi-paragraph essays to convey information about the topic that:

(i) present effective introductions and concluding paragraphs;

(ii) guide and inform the reader's understanding of key ideas and evidence;

(iii) include specific facts, details, and examples in an appropriately organized structure; and

(iv) use a variety of sentence structures and transitions to link paragraphs;

(B) write formal and informal letters that convey ideas, include important information, demonstrate a sense of closure, and use appropriate conventions (e.g., date, salutation, closing); and

(C) write responses to literary or expository texts and provide evidence from the text to demonstrate understanding.

(19) Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write persuasive essays for appropriate audiences that establish a position and include sound reasoning, detailed and relevant evidence, and consideration of alternatives.

(20) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i) verbs (irregular verbs and active voice);

(ii) collective nouns (e.g., class, public);

(iii) adjectives (e.g., descriptive, including origins: French windows, American cars) and their comparative and superlative forms (e.g., good, better, best);

(iv) adverbs (e.g., frequency: usually, sometimes; intensity: almost, a lot);

(v) prepositions and prepositional phrases to convey location, time, direction, or to provide details;

(vi) indefinite pronouns (e.g., all, both, nothing, anything);

(vii) subordinating conjunctions (e.g., while, because, although, if); and

(viii) transitional words (e.g., also, therefore);

(B) use the complete subject and the complete predicate in a sentence; and

(C) use complete simple and compound sentences with correct subject-verb agreement.

(21) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A) use capitalization for:

(i) abbreviations;

(ii) initials and acronyms; and

(iii) organizations;

(B) recognize and use punctuation marks including:

(i) commas in compound sentences; and

(ii) proper punctuation and spacing for quotations; and

(C) use proper mechanics including italics and underlining for titles and emphasis.

(22) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:

(A) spell words with more advanced orthographic patterns and rules:

(i) consonant changes (e.g.,/t/ to/sh/ in select, selection;/k/ to/sh/ in music, musician);

(ii) vowel changes (e.g., long to short in crime, criminal; long to schwa in define, definition; short to schwa in legality, legal); and

(iii) silent and sounded consonants (e.g., haste, hasten; sign, signal; condemn, condemnation);

(B) spell words with:

(i) Greek Roots (e.g., tele, photo, graph, meter);

(ii) Latin Roots (e.g., spec, scrib, rupt, port, ject, dict);

(iii) Greek suffixes (e.g., -ology, -phobia, -ism, -ist); and

(iv) Latin derived suffixes (e.g., -able, -ible; -ance, -ence);

(C) differentiate between commonly confused terms (e.g., its, it's; affect, effect);

(D) use spelling patterns and rules and print and electronic resources to determine and check correct spellings; and

(E) know how to use the spell-check function in word processing while understanding its limitations.

(23) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A) brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate open-ended questions to address the major research topic; and

(B) generate a research plan for gathering relevant information about the major research question.

(24) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A) follow the research plan to collect data from a range of print and electronic resources (e.g., reference texts, periodicals, web pages, online sources) and data from experts;

(B) differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(C) record data, utilizing available technology (e.g., word processors) in order to see the relationships between ideas, and convert graphic/visual data (e.g., charts, diagrams, timelines) into written notes;

(D) identify the source of notes (e.g., author, title, page number) and record bibliographic information concerning those sources according to a standard format; and

(E) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism and identify the importance of citing valid and reliable sources.

(25) Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:

(A) refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions; and

(B) evaluate the relevance, validity, and reliability of sources for the research.

(26) Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into a written or an oral presentation that:

(A) compiles important information from multiple sources;

(B) develops a topic sentence, summarizes findings, and uses evidence to support conclusions;

(C) presents the findings in a consistent format; and

(D) uses quotations to support ideas and an appropriate form of documentation to acknowledge sources (e.g., bibliography, works cited).

(27) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) listen to and interpret a speaker's messages (both verbal and nonverbal) and ask questions to clarify the speaker's purpose or perspective;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps; and

(C) determine both main and supporting ideas in the speaker's message.

(28) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to give organized presentations employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(29) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate in student-led discussions by eliciting and considering suggestions from other group members and by identifying points of agreement and disagreement.

Subchapter B

§110.17: Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading, Middle School, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010

(a) The provisions of §§110.18-110.20 of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2009-2010 school year.

(b) Students must develop the ability to comprehend and process material from a wide range of texts. Student expectations for Reading/Comprehension Skills as provided in this subsection are described for the appropriate grade level.

Attached Graphic

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.17 adopted to be effective September 4, 2008, 33 TexReg 7162; amended to be effective February 22, 2010, 35 TexReg 1461

§110.18: English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 6, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In sixth grade, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read and write on a daily basis.

(2) For students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition.

(A) English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation.

(B) For ELLs, comprehension of texts requires additional scaffolds to support comprehensible input. ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to further vocabulary development. Vocabulary needs to be taught in the context of connected discourse so that language is meaningful. ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in English differ from those in their native language. At the same time English learners are learning in English, the focus is on academic English, concepts, and the language structures specific to the content.

(C) During initial stages of English development, ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. However, English language learners' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and learn to learn in English simultaneously.

(3) To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations at Grade 6 as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4) To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to adjust fluency when reading aloud grade-level text based on the reading purpose and the nature of the text.

(2) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A) determine the meaning of grade-level academic English words derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

(B) use context (e.g., cause and effect or compare and contrast organizational text structures) to determine or clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or multiple meaning words;

(C) complete analogies that describe part to whole or whole to part (e.g., ink:pen as page: ____ or pen:ink as book: _____);

(D) explain the meaning of foreign words and phrases commonly used in written English (e.g., RSVP, que sera sera); and

(E) use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to determine the meanings, syllabication, pronunciations, alternate word choices, and parts of speech of words.

(3) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) infer the implicit theme of a work of fiction, distinguishing theme from the topic;

(B) analyze the function of stylistic elements (e.g., magic helper, rule of three) in traditional and classical literature from various cultures; and

(C) compare and contrast the historical and cultural settings of two literary works.

(4) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain how figurative language (e.g., personification, metaphors, similes, hyperbole) contributes to the meaning of a poem.

(5) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the similarities and differences in the setting, characters, and plot of a play and those in a film based upon the same story line.

(6) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) summarize the elements of plot development (e.g., rising action, turning point, climax, falling action, denouement) in various works of fiction;

(B) recognize dialect and conversational voice and explain how authors use dialect to convey character; and

(C) describe different forms of point-of-view, including first- and third-person.

(7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the literary language and devices used in memoirs and personal narratives and compare their characteristics with those of an autobiography.

(8) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain how authors create meaning through stylistic elements and figurative language emphasizing the use of personification, hyperbole, and refrains.

(9) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to compare and contrast the stated or implied purposes of different authors writing on the same topic.

(10) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) summarize the main ideas and supporting details in text, demonstrating an understanding that a summary does not include opinions;

(B) explain whether facts included in an argument are used for or against an issue;

(C) explain how different organizational patterns (e.g., proposition-and-support, problem-and-solution) develop the main idea and the author's viewpoint; and

(D) synthesize and make logical connections between ideas within a text and across two or three texts representing similar or different genres.

(11) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:

(A) compare and contrast the structure and viewpoints of two different authors writing for the same purpose, noting the stated claim and supporting evidence; and

(B) identify simply faulty reasoning used in persuasive texts.

(12) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A) follow multi-tasked instructions to complete a task, solve a problem, or perform procedures; and

(B) interpret factual, quantitative, or technical information presented in maps, charts, illustrations, graphs, timelines, tables, and diagrams.

(13) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A) explain messages conveyed in various forms of media;

(B) recognize how various techniques influence viewers' emotions;

(C) critique persuasive techniques (e.g., testimonials, bandwagon appeal) used in media messages; and

(D) analyze various digital media venues for levels of formality and informality.

(14) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for conveying the intended meaning to an audience, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B) develop drafts by choosing an appropriate organizational strategy (e.g., sequence of events, cause-effect, compare-contrast) and building on ideas to create a focused, organized, and coherent piece of writing;

(C) revise drafts to clarify meaning, enhance style, include simple and compound sentences, and improve transitions by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging sentences or larger units of text after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed;

(D) edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E) revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(15) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

(A) write imaginative stories that include:

(i) a clearly defined focus, plot, and point of view;

(ii) a specific, believable setting created through the use of sensory details; and

(iii) dialogue that develops the story; and

(B) write poems using:

(i) poetic techniques (e.g., alliteration, onomatopoeia);

(ii) figurative language (e.g., similes, metaphors); and

(iii) graphic elements (e.g., capital letters, line length).

(16) Writing. Students write about their own experiences. Students are expected to write a personal narrative that has a clearly defined focus and communicates the importance of or reasons for actions and/or consequences.

(17) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A) create multi-paragraph essays to convey information about a topic that:

(i) present effective introductions and concluding paragraphs;

(ii) guide and inform the reader's understanding of key ideas and evidence;

(iii) include specific facts, details, and examples in an appropriately organized structure; and

(iv) use a variety of sentence structures and transitions to link paragraphs;

(B) write informal letters that convey ideas, include important information, demonstrate a sense of closure, and use appropriate conventions (e.g., date, salutation, closing);

(C) write responses to literary or expository texts and provide evidence from the text to demonstrate understanding; and

(D) produce a multimedia presentation involving text and graphics using available technology.

(18) Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write persuasive essays for appropriate audiences that establish a position and include sound reasoning, detailed and relevant evidence, and consideration of alternatives.

(19) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i) verbs (irregular verbs and active and passive voice);

(ii) non-count nouns (e.g., rice, paper);

(iii) predicate adjectives (She is intelligent.) and their comparative and superlative forms (e.g., many, more, most);

(iv) conjunctive adverbs (e.g., consequently, furthermore, indeed);

(v) prepositions and prepositional phrases to convey location, time, direction, or to provide details;

(vi) indefinite pronouns (e.g., all, both, nothing, anything);

(vii) subordinating conjunctions (e.g., while, because, although, if); and

(viii) transitional words and phrases that demonstrate an understanding of the function of the transition related to the organization of the writing (e.g., on the contrary, in addition to);

(B) differentiate between the active and passive voice and know how to use them both; and

(C) use complete simple and compound sentences with correct subject-verb agreement.

(20) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A) use capitalization for:

(i) abbreviations;

(ii) initials and acronyms; and

(iii) organizations;

(B) recognize and use punctuation marks including:

(i) commas in compound sentences;

(ii) proper punctuation and spacing for quotations; and

(iii) parentheses, brackets, and ellipses (to indicate omissions and interruptions or incomplete statements); and

(C) use proper mechanics including italics and underlining for titles of books.

(21) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:

(A) differentiate between commonly confused terms (e.g., its, it's; affect, effect);

(B) use spelling patterns and rules and print and electronic resources to determine and check correct spellings; and

(C) know how to use the spell-check function in word processing while understanding its limitations.

(22) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A) brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate open-ended questions to address the major research topic; and

(B) generate a research plan for gathering relevant information about the major research question.

(23) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A) follow the research plan to collect data from a range of print and electronic resources (e.g., reference texts, periodicals, web pages, online sources) and data from experts;

(B) differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(C) record data, utilizing available technology (e.g., word processors) in order to see the relationships between ideas, and convert graphic/visual data (e.g., charts, diagrams, timelines) into written notes;

(D) identify the source of notes (e.g., author, title, page number) and record bibliographic information concerning those sources according to a standard format; and

(E) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism and identify the importance of citing valid and reliable sources.

(24) Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:

(A) refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions; and

(B) evaluate the relevance and reliability of sources for the research.

(25) Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into a written or an oral presentation that:

(A) compiles important information from multiple sources;

(B) develops a topic sentence, summarizes findings, and uses evidence to support conclusions;

(C) presents the findings in a consistent format; and

(D) uses quotations to support ideas and an appropriate form of documentation to acknowledge sources (e.g., bibliography, works cited).

(26) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) listen to and interpret a speaker's messages (both verbal and nonverbal) and ask questions to clarify the speaker's purpose and perspective;

(B) follow and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps; and

(C) paraphrase the major ideas and supporting evidence in formal and informal presentations.

(27) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to give an organized presentation with a specific point of view, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(28) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate in student-led discussions by eliciting and considering suggestions from other group members and by identifying points of agreement and disagreement.

§110.19: English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 7, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In seventh grade, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read and write on a daily basis.

(2) For students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition.

(A) English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation.

(B) For ELLs, comprehension of texts requires additional scaffolds to support comprehensible input. ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to further vocabulary development. Vocabulary needs to be taught in the context of connected discourse so that language is meaningful. ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in English differ from those in their native language. At the same time English learners are learning in English, the focus is on academic English, concepts, and the language structures specific to the content.

(C) During initial stages of English development, ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. However, English language learners' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and learn to learn in English simultaneously.

(3) To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations at Grade 7 as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4) To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to adjust fluency when reading aloud grade-level text based on the reading purpose and the nature of the text.

(2) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A) determine the meaning of grade-level academic English words derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

(B) use context (within a sentence and in larger sections of text) to determine or clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or ambiguous words;

(C) complete analogies that describe part to whole or whole to part;

(D) identify the meaning of foreign words commonly used in written English with emphasis on Latin and Greek words (e.g., habeus corpus, e pluribus unum, bona fide, nemesis); and

(E) use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to determine the meanings, syllabication, pronunciations, alternate word choices, and parts of speech of words.

(3) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) describe multiple themes in a work of fiction;

(B) describe conventions in myths and epic tales (e.g., extended simile, the quest, the hero's tasks, circle stories); and

(C) analyze how place and time influence the theme or message of a literary work.

(4) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the importance of graphical elements (e.g., capital letters, line length, word position) on the meaning of a poem.

(5) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain a playwright's use of dialogue and stage directions.

(6) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) explain the influence of the setting on plot development;

(B) analyze the development of the plot through the internal and external responses of the characters, including their motivations and conflicts; and

(C) analyze different forms of point of view, including first-person, third-person omniscient, and third-person limited.

(7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to describe the structural and substantive differences between an autobiography or a diary and a fictional adaptation of it.

(8) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to determine the figurative meaning of phrases and analyze how an author's use of language creates imagery, appeals to the senses, and suggests mood.

(9) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the difference between the theme of a literary work and the author's purpose in an expository text.

(10) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) evaluate a summary of the original text for accuracy of the main ideas, supporting details, and overall meaning;

(B) distinguish factual claims from commonplace assertions and opinions;

(C) use different organizational patterns as guides for summarizing and forming an overview of different kinds of expository text; and

(D) synthesize and make logical connections between ideas within a text and across two or three texts representing similar or different genres, and support those findings with textual evidence.

(11) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:

(A) analyze the structure of the central argument in contemporary policy speeches (e.g., argument by cause and effect, analogy, authority) and identify the different types of evidence used to support the argument; and

(B) identify such rhetorical fallacies as ad hominem, exaggeration, stereotyping, or categorical claims in persuasive texts.

(12) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A) follow multi-dimensional instructions from text to complete a task, solve a problem, or perform procedures; and

(B) explain the function of the graphical components of a text.

(13) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A) interpret both explicit and implicit messages in various forms of media;

(B) interpret how visual and sound techniques (e.g., special effects, camera angles, lighting, music) influence the message;

(C) evaluate various ways media influences and informs audiences; and

(D) assess the correct level of formality and tone for successful participation in various digital media.

(14) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for conveying the intended meaning to an audience, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B) develop drafts by choosing an appropriate organizational strategy (e.g., sequence of events, cause-effect, compare-contrast) and building on ideas to create a focused, organized, and coherent piece of writing;

(C) revise drafts to ensure precise word choice and vivid images; consistent point of view; use of simple, compound, and complex sentences; internal and external coherence; and the use of effective transitions after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed;

(D) edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E) revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(15) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

(A) write an imaginative story that:

(i) sustains reader interest;

(ii) includes well-paced action and an engaging story line;

(iii) creates a specific, believable setting through the use of sensory details;

(iv) develops interesting characters; and

(v) uses a range of literary strategies and devices to enhance the style and tone; and

(B) write a poem using:

(i) poetic techniques (e.g., rhyme scheme, meter);

(ii) figurative language (e.g., personification, idioms, hyperbole); and

(iii) graphic elements (e.g., word position).

(16) Writing. Students write about their own experiences. Students are expected to write a personal narrative that has a clearly defined focus and communicates the importance of or reasons for actions and/or consequences.

(17) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A) write a multi-paragraph essay to convey information about a topic that:

(i) presents effective introductions and concluding paragraphs;

(ii) contains a clearly stated purpose or controlling idea;

(iii) is logically organized with appropriate facts and details and includes no extraneous information or inconsistencies;

(iv) accurately synthesizes ideas from several sources; and

(v) uses a variety of sentence structures, rhetorical devices, and transitions to link paragraphs;

(B) write a letter that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly context;

(C) write responses to literary or expository texts that demonstrate the writing skills for multi-paragraph essays and provide sustained evidence from the text using quotations when appropriate; and

(D) produce a multimedia presentation involving text and graphics using available technology.

(18) Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write a persuasive essay to the appropriate audience that:

(A) establishes a clear thesis or position;

(B) considers and responds to the views of others and anticipates and answers reader concerns and counter-arguments; and

(C) includes evidence that is logically organized to support the author's viewpoint and that differentiates between fact and opinion.

(19) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) identify, use, and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i) verbs (perfect and progressive tenses) and participles;

(ii) appositive phrases;

(iii) adverbial and adjectival phrases and clauses;

(iv) conjunctive adverbs (e.g., consequently, furthermore, indeed);

(v) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(vi) relative pronouns (e.g., whose, that, which);

(vii) subordinating conjunctions (e.g., because, since); and

(viii) transitions for sentence to sentence or paragraph to paragraph coherence;

(B) write complex sentences and differentiate between main versus subordinate clauses; and

(C) use a variety of complete sentences (e.g., simple, compound, complex) that include properly placed modifiers, correctly identified antecedents, parallel structures, and consistent tenses.

(20) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A) use conventions of capitalization; and

(B) recognize and use punctuation marks including:

(i) commas after introductory words, phrases, and clauses; and

(ii) semicolons, colons, and hyphens.

(21) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to spell correctly, including using various resources to determine and check correct spellings.

(22) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A) brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate a major research question to address the major research topic; and

(B) apply steps for obtaining and evaluating information from a wide variety of sources and create a written plan after preliminary research in reference works and additional text searches.

(23) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A) follow the research plan to gather information from a range of relevant print and electronic sources using advanced search strategies;

(B) categorize information thematically in order to see the larger constructs inherent in the information;

(C) record bibliographic information (e.g., author, title, page number) for all notes and sources according to a standard format; and

(D) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism and identify the importance of citing valid and reliable sources.

(24) Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:

(A) narrow or broaden the major research question, if necessary, based on further research and investigation; and

(B) utilize elements that demonstrate the reliability and validity of the sources used (e.g., publication date, coverage, language, point of view) and explain why one source is more useful than another.

(25) Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into a written or an oral presentation that:

(A) draws conclusions and summarizes or paraphrases the findings in a systematic way;

(B) marshals evidence to explain the topic and gives relevant reasons for conclusions;

(C) presents the findings in a meaningful format; and

(D) follows accepted formats for integrating quotations and citations into the written text to maintain a flow of ideas.

(26) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) listen to and interpret a speaker's purpose by explaining the content, evaluating the delivery of the presentation, and asking questions or making comments about the evidence that supports a speaker's claims;

(B) follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems; and

(C) draw conclusions about the speaker's message by considering verbal communication (e.g., word choice, tone) and nonverbal cues (e.g., posture, gestures, facial expressions).

(27) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to present a critique of a literary work, film, or dramatic production, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, a variety of natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(28) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate productively in discussions, plan agendas with clear goals and deadlines, set time limits for speakers, take notes, and vote on key issues.

§110.20: English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 8, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In eighth grade, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read and write on a daily basis.

(2) For students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition.

(A) English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation.

(B) For ELLs, comprehension of texts requires additional scaffolds to support comprehensible input. ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to further vocabulary development. Vocabulary needs to be taught in the context of connected discourse so that language is meaningful. ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in English differ from those in their native language. At the same time English learners are learning in English, the focus is on academic English, concepts, and the language structures specific to the content.

(C) During initial stages of English development, ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. However, English language learners' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and learn to learn in English simultaneously.

(3) To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations at Grade 8 as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4) To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to adjust fluency when reading aloud grade-level text based on the reading purpose and the nature of the text.

(2) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A) determine the meaning of grade-level academic English words derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

(B) use context (within a sentence and in larger sections of text) to determine or clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or ambiguous words or words with novel meanings;

(C) complete analogies that describe a function or its description (e.g., pen:paper as chalk: ______ or soft:kitten as hard: ______);

(D) identify common words or word parts from other languages that are used in written English (e.g., phenomenon, charisma, chorus, passé, flora, fauna); and

(E) use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to determine the meanings, syllabication, pronunciations, alternate word choices, and parts of speech of words.

(3) Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) analyze literary works that share similar themes across cultures;

(B) compare and contrast the similarities and differences in mythologies from various cultures (e.g., ideas of afterlife, roles and characteristics of deities, purposes of myths); and

(C) explain how the values and beliefs of particular characters are affected by the historical and cultural setting of the literary work.

(4) Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to compare and contrast the relationship between the purpose and characteristics of different poetic forms (e.g., epic poetry, lyric poetry).

(5) Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze how different playwrights characterize their protagonists and antagonists through the dialogue and staging of their plays.

(6) Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) analyze linear plot developments (e.g., conflict, rising action, falling action, resolution, subplots) to determine whether and how conflicts are resolved;

(B) analyze how the central characters' qualities influence the theme of a fictional work and resolution of the central conflict; and

(C) analyze different forms of point of view, including limited versus omniscient, subjective versus objective.

(7) Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze passages in well-known speeches for the author's use of literary devices and word and phrase choice (e.g., aphorisms, epigraphs) to appeal to the audience.

(8) Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the effect of similes and extended metaphors in literary text.

(9) Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze works written on the same topic and compare how the authors achieved similar or different purposes.

(10) Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) summarize the main ideas, supporting details, and relationships among ideas in text succinctly in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(B) distinguish factual claims from commonplace assertions and opinions and evaluate inferences from their logic in text;

(C) make subtle inferences and draw complex conclusions about the ideas in text and their organizational patterns; and

(D) synthesize and make logical connections between ideas within a text and across two or three texts representing similar or different genres and support those findings with textual evidence.

(11) Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:

(A) compare and contrast persuasive texts that reached different conclusions about the same issue and explain how the authors reached their conclusions through analyzing the evidence each presents; and

(B) analyze the use of such rhetorical and logical fallacies as loaded terms, caricatures, leading questions, false assumptions, and incorrect premises in persuasive texts.

(12) Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A) analyze text for missing or extraneous information in multi-step directions or legends for diagrams; and

(B) evaluate graphics for their clarity in communicating meaning or achieving a specific purpose.

(13) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A) evaluate the role of media in focusing attention on events and informing opinion on issues;

(B) interpret how visual and sound techniques (e.g., special effects, camera angles, lighting, music) influence the message;

(C) evaluate various techniques used to create a point of view in media and the impact on audience; and

(D) assess the correct level of formality and tone for successful participation in various digital media.

(14) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for conveying the intended meaning to an audience, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B) develop drafts by choosing an appropriate organizational strategy (e.g., sequence of events, cause-effect, compare-contrast) and building on ideas to create a focused, organized, and coherent piece of writing;

(C) revise drafts to ensure precise word choice and vivid images; consistent point of view; use of simple, compound, and complex sentences; internal and external coherence; and the use of effective transitions after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed;

(D) edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E) revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(15) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

(A) write an imaginative story that:

(i) sustains reader interest;

(ii) includes well-paced action and an engaging story line;

(iii) creates a specific, believable setting through the use of sensory details;

(iv) develops interesting characters; and

(v) uses a range of literary strategies and devices to enhance the style and tone; and

(B) write a poem using:

(i) poetic techniques (e.g., rhyme scheme, meter);

(ii) figurative language (e.g., personification, idioms, hyperbole); and

(iii) graphic elements (e.g., word position).

(16) Writing. Students write about their own experiences. Students are expected to write a personal narrative that has a clearly defined focus and includes reflections on decisions, actions, and/or consequences.

(17) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A) write a multi-paragraph essay to convey information about a topic that:

(i) presents effective introductions and concluding paragraphs;

(ii) contains a clearly stated purpose or controlling idea;

(iii) is logically organized with appropriate facts and details and includes no extraneous information or inconsistencies;

(iv) accurately synthesizes ideas from several sources; and

(v) uses a variety of sentence structures, rhetorical devices, and transitions to link paragraphs;

(B) write a letter that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly context;

(C) write responses to literary or expository texts that demonstrate the use of writing skills for a multi-paragraph essay and provide sustained evidence from the text using quotations when appropriate; and

(D) produce a multimedia presentation involving text, graphics, images, and sound using available technology.

(18) Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write a persuasive essay to the appropriate audience that:

(A) establishes a clear thesis or position;

(B) considers and responds to the views of others and anticipates and answers reader concerns and counter-arguments; and

(C) includes evidence that is logically organized to support the author's viewpoint and that differentiates between fact and opinion.

(19) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i) verbs (perfect and progressive tenses) and participles;

(ii) appositive phrases;

(iii) adverbial and adjectival phrases and clauses;

(iv) relative pronouns (e.g., whose, that, which); and

(v) subordinating conjunctions (e.g., because, since);

(B) write complex sentences and differentiate between main versus subordinate clauses; and

(C) use a variety of complete sentences (e.g., simple, compound, complex) that include properly placed modifiers, correctly identified antecedents, parallel structures, and consistent tenses.

(20) Writing/Conventions of Language/Handwriting. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) use conventions of capitalization; and

(B) use correct punctuation marks, including:

(i) commas after introductory structures and dependent adverbial clauses, and correct punctuation of complex sentences; and

(ii) semicolons, colons, hyphens, parentheses, brackets, and ellipses.

(21) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to spell correctly, including using various resources to determine and check correct spellings.

(22) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A) brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate a major research question to address the major research topic; and

(B) apply steps for obtaining and evaluating information from a wide variety of sources and create a written plan after preliminary research in reference works and additional text searches.

(23) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A) follow the research plan to gather information from a range of relevant print and electronic sources using advanced search strategies;

(B) categorize information thematically in order to see the larger constructs inherent in the information;

(C) record bibliographic information (e.g., author, title, page number) for all notes and sources according to a standard format; and

(D) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism and identify the importance of using valid and reliable sources.

(24) Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:

(A) narrow or broaden the major research question, if necessary, based on further research and investigation; and

(B) utilize elements that demonstrate the reliability and validity of the sources used (e.g., publication date, coverage, language, point of view) and explain why one source is more useful and relevant than another.

(25) Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into a written or an oral presentation that:

(A) draws conclusions and summarizes or paraphrases the findings in a systematic way;

(B) marshals evidence to explain the topic and gives relevant reasons for conclusions;

(C) presents the findings in a meaningful format; and

(D) follows accepted formats for integrating quotations and citations into the written text to maintain a flow of ideas.

(26) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) listen to and interpret a speaker's purpose by explaining the content, evaluating the delivery of the presentation, and asking questions or making comments about the evidence that supports a speaker's claims;

(B) follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems; and

(C) summarize formal and informal presentations, distinguish between facts and opinions, and determine the effectiveness of rhetorical devices.

(27) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to advocate a position using anecdotes, analogies, and/or illustrations, and use eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, a variety of natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(28) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate productively in discussions, plan agendas with clear goals and deadlines, set time limits for speakers, take notes, and vote on key issues.

§110.25: English Language Arts and Reading, Reading (Elective Credit)

(a) Introduction.

(1) Reading offers students an opportunity to read with competence, confidence, and understanding through instruction in comprehension strategies, word recognition, and vocabulary. Middle school students read, write, listen, speak, and view to learn more about the world around them and to create, clarify, critique, and appreciate ideas and responses. Middle school students complete research projects or locate answers to questions using multiple texts and resources. In addition, middle school students continue to read on their own or listen to texts read aloud for the purpose of enjoyment. Middle school students read both printed texts and electronic media independently, bringing with them various strategies to aid in comprehension. Significant blocks of time are provided for reading both independent and instructional-level material for varied purposes such as collecting information, learning about and appreciating the writer's craft, and discovering models for their own writing. Middle school students respond to texts through various avenues such as talk, print and electronic formats, connecting their knowledge of the world with the text being read. For middle school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(2) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Reading, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student uses a variety of word recognition strategies. The student is expected to:

(A) apply knowledge of letter-sound correspondences, language structure, and context to recognize words; and

(B) use dictionaries, glossaries, and other sources to confirm pronunciations and meanings of unfamiliar words.

(2) The student acquires vocabulary through reading and systematic word study. The student is expected to:

(A) expand vocabulary by reading, viewing, listening, and discussing;

(B) determine word meaning by using context;

(C) use spelling, prefixes and suffixes, roots, and word origins to understand meanings;

(D) use reference aids such as a glossary, dictionary, thesaurus, and available technology to determine meanings and pronunciations; and

(E) identify analogies, homonyms, synonyms/antonyms, and connotation/denotation.

(3) The student reads with fluency and understanding in increasingly demanding texts. The student is expected to:

(A) read silently for a variety of purposes with comprehension for sustained periods of time;

(B) adjust reading rate based on purposes for reading; and

(C) read orally at a rate that enables comprehension.

(4) The student comprehends selections using a variety of strategies. The student is expected to:

(A) use prior knowledge and experience to comprehend;

(B) determine purpose for reading;

(C) self-monitor reading and adjust when confusion occurs by rereading, using resources, and questioning;

(D) summarize texts by identifying main ideas and relevant details;

(E) make inferences such as drawing conclusions and making generalizations or predictions, supporting them with prior experiences and textual evidence;

(F) analyze and use both narrative and expository text structures: sequence, description, problem/solution, compare/contrast, and cause/effect;

(G) make connections and find patterns, similarities, and differences across texts;

(H) construct visual images based on text descriptions;

(I) determine important ideas from texts and oral presentations;

(J) manage text by using practices such as previewing, highlighting, making marginal notes, notetaking, outlining, and journaling; and

(K) use questioning to enhance comprehension before, during, and after reading.

(5) The student reads texts to find information on self-selected and assigned topics. The student is expected to:

(A) generate relevant, interesting, and researchable questions;

(B) locate appropriate print and non-print information using text and technical resources;

(C) organize and record new information in systematic ways to develop notes, charts, and graphic organizers;

(D) communicate information gained from reading;

(E) use compiled information and knowledge to raise additional unanswered questions; and

(F) use text organizers such as overviews, headings, and graphic features to locate and categorize information.

(6) The student reads for different purposes in varied sources, both narrative and expository. The student is expected to:

(A) read to enjoy, to complete a task, to gather information, to be informed, to solve problems, to answer questions, to analyze, to interpret, and to evaluate;

(B) read sources such as literature, diaries, journals, textbooks, maps, newspapers, letters, speeches, memoranda, electronic texts, and technical documents; and

(C) understand and interpret visual representations.

(7) The student formulates and supports responses to various types of texts. The student is expected to:

(A) respond actively to texts in both aesthetic and critical ways;

(B) respond to text through discussion, journal writing, performance, and visual representation; and

(C) support responses by using prior knowledge and experience and/or citing textual evidence which may consist of a direct quotation, paraphrase, or specific synopsis.

(8) The student reads critically to evaluate texts in order to determine the credibility of sources. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate the credibility of informational sources and their relevance for assigned and self-selected topics;

(B) evaluate how a writer's motivation, stance, or position may affect text credibility, structure, or tone;

(C) analyze aspects of text, such as patterns of organization and choice of language, for persuasive effect;

(D) recognize modes of reasoning, such as induction and deduction; and

(E) recognize logical and illogical arguments in text.

(9) The student reads to increase knowledge of own culture, the culture of others, and the common elements of cultures. The student is expected to:

(A) compare text events with personal and other readers' experiences; and

(B) recognize and discuss literary themes and connections that cross cultures.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.25 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective September 4, 2008, 33 TexReg 7216

§110.26: English Language Arts and Reading, Speech (Elective Credit)

(a) Introduction.

(1) Communication is an integral part of our social, cultural, and academic lives; therefore, middle school students should develop effective communication skills to further their academic pursuits and to prepare for interaction in social, civic, and professional roles. Competent communicators develop skills focused on five identifiable functions of expressing and responding appropriately to feelings, participating in social traditions, informing, persuading, creating, and imagining. To become competent communicators, students will develop and apply skills in using oral language, nonverbal communication, and listening in interpersonal, group, academic, and public contexts. For middle school students whose first language is not English, the students' experiences with oral communication serve as a foundation for English language acquisition.

(2) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Speech, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Understanding the communication process. The student demonstrates a knowledge of communication. The student is expected to:

(A) recognize and explain the importance of communication in social, academic, civic, and professional roles;

(B) identify the related components of the communication process;

(C) identify standards of making communication choices considering appropriateness for self, listener, occasion, and task;

(D) identify characteristics of oral language and analyze standards for using oral language appropriately;

(E) identify the importance of using appropriate nonverbal communication;

(F) identify and explain the components of listening process;

(G) identify the kinds of listening and analyze skills related to each type;

(H) analyze how perception of self and others affects communication;

(I) analyze and develop techniques and strategies for building self-confidence and reducing communication apprehension;

(J) identify and explain factors that influence communication decisions such as knowledge, attitudes, and culture; and

(K) explain the importance of assuming responsibility for communication decisions.

(2) Expressing and responding. The student develops skills for expressing and responding appropriately in a variety of situations. The student is expected to:

(A) use appropriate verbal and nonverbal communication skills in interpersonal situations;

(B) use reflective empathic listening skills to respond appropriately in interpersonal situations;

(C) explain the importance of using tact, courtesy, and assertiveness appropriately in interpersonal situations;

(D) identify kinds of groups and analyze basic principles of group dynamics;

(E) use appropriate communication skills in groups to make plans or accomplish goals;

(F) use appropriate strategies for agreeing or disagreeing in interpersonal and group situations; and

(G) prepare and present an oral statement on a topic of interest or concern.

(3) Participating in social traditions. The student develops an understanding of social traditions. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the importance of social traditions and ceremonies in various contexts and cultures;

(B) communicate appropriately in a variety of interpersonal social traditions, including making and acknowledging introductions and giving and accepting praise and criticism;

(C) employ parliamentary procedure in a group meeting;

(D) use effective techniques to prepare, organize, and present a speech for a special occasion; and

(E) use appreciative and critical-listening skills to analyze, evaluate, and respond appropriately to class, public, or media.

(4) Informing. The student expresses and responds appropriately to informative messages. The student is expected to:

(A) research ideas and topics to acquire accurate information from a variety of primary, secondary, and technological sources;

(B) use appropriate communication skills to request, provide, and respond to information in interpersonal conversations;

(C) use appropriate verbal, nonverbal, and listening skills in interviews;

(D) use appropriate information and effective critical-thinking skills in group decision-making and problem-solving processes;

(E) plan and present an informative group discussion for an audience;

(F) plan, research, organize, prepare, and present an informative speech;

(G) rehearse speeches to gain command of ideas and information, reduce communication apprehension, develop confidence, and practice presentation skills;

(H) use notes, manuscripts, rostrum, and visual and auditory aids appropriately in speeches;

(I) use effective verbal and nonverbal communication in presenting informative speeches;

(J) apply critical-listening skills to analyze, evaluate, and respond appropriately to informative group discussions and speeches; and

(K) develop and use communication skills needed for academic achievement such as participating appropriately in class discussions, using active and critical-listening skills, and taking accurate notes.

(5) Persuading. The student expresses and responds appropriately to persuasive messages. The student is expected to:

(A) recognize and develop skills for analyzing persuasive strategies such as propaganda devices and emotional appeals;

(B) respond appropriately to persuasive messages in situations such as accepting or rejecting peer pressure and making or responding to requests;

(C) plan, research, organize, prepare, and present a persuasive speech;

(D) demonstrate persuasive skills in informal or formal argumentation, discussions, or debates; and

(E) develop and use critical listening skills to analyze, evaluate, and respond appropriately to class, public, or media presentations.

(6) Creating and imagining. The student uses imagination and creativity to prepare and perform various types of literature. The student is expected to:

(A) use imagination to plan, organize, and tell stories;

(B) use appropriate verbal and nonverbal skills to share stories;

(C) select, analyze, adapt, interpret, and rehearse a variety of literary selections;

(D) use effective group decision-making skills in group performances;

(E) use appropriate verbal and nonverbal skills in individual or group interpretations of literature; and

(F) use appreciative and critical-listening skills to respond appropriately to class, public, or media performances.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.26 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective September 4, 2008, 33 TexReg 7216

Subchapter C

§110.30: Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading, High School, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010

(a) The provisions of §§110.31-110.34 of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2009-2010 school year.

(b) Students must develop the ability to comprehend and process material from a wide range of texts. Student expectations for Reading/Comprehension Skills as provided in this subsection are described for the appropriate grade level.

Attached Graphic

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.30 adopted to be effective September 4, 2008, 33 TexReg 7162; amended to be effective February 22, 2010, 35 TexReg 1461

§110.31: English Language Arts and Reading, English I (One Credit), Beginning with School Year 2009-2010

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In English I, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read and write on a daily basis.

(2) For students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition.

(A) English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation.

(B) For ELLs, comprehension of texts requires additional scaffolds to support comprehensible input. ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to further vocabulary development. Vocabulary needs to be taught in the context of connected discourse so that language is meaningful. ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in English differ from those in their native language. At the same time English learners are learning in English, the focus is on academic English, concepts, and the language structures specific to the content.

(C) During initial stages of English development, ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. However, English language learners' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and learn to learn in English simultaneously.

(3) To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations in English I as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4) To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A) determine the meaning of grade-level technical academic English words in multiple content areas (e.g., science, mathematics, social studies, the arts) derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

(B) analyze textual context (within a sentence and in larger sections of text) to distinguish between the denotative and connotative meanings of words;

(C) produce analogies that describe a function of an object or its description;

(D) describe the origins and meanings of foreign words or phrases used frequently in written English (e.g., caveat emptor, carte blanche, tete a tete, pas de deux, bon appetit, quid pro quo); and

(E) use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to determine or confirm the meanings of words and phrases, including their connotations and denotations, and their etymology.

(2) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) analyze how the genre of texts with similar themes shapes meaning;

(B) analyze the influence of mythic, classical and traditional literature on 20th and 21st century literature; and

(C) relate the figurative language of a literary work to its historical and cultural setting.

(3) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the effects of diction and imagery (e.g., controlling images, figurative language, understatement, overstatement, irony, paradox) in poetry.

(4) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain how dramatic conventions (e.g., monologues, soliloquies, dramatic irony) enhance dramatic text.

(5) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) analyze non-linear plot development (e.g., flashbacks, foreshadowing, sub-plots, parallel plot structures) and compare it to linear plot development;

(B) analyze how authors develop complex yet believable characters in works of fiction through a range of literary devices, including character foils;

(C) analyze the way in which a work of fiction is shaped by the narrator's point of view; and

(D) demonstrate familiarity with works by authors from non-English-speaking literary traditions with emphasis on classical literature.

(6) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze how literary essays interweave personal examples and ideas with factual information to explain, present a perspective, or describe a situation or event.

(7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the role of irony, sarcasm, and paradox in literary works.

(8) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the controlling idea and specific purpose of an expository text and distinguish the most important from the less important details that support the author's purpose.

(9) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) summarize text and distinguish between a summary that captures the main ideas and elements of a text and a critique that takes a position and expresses an opinion;

(B) differentiate between opinions that are substantiated and unsubstantiated in the text;

(C) make subtle inferences and draw complex conclusions about the ideas in text and their organizational patterns; and

(D) synthesize and make logical connections between ideas and details in several texts selected to reflect a range of viewpoints on the same topic and support those findings with textual evidence.

(10) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:

(A) analyze the relevance, quality, and credibility of evidence given to support or oppose an argument for a specific audience; and

(B) analyze famous speeches for the rhetorical structures and devices used to convince the reader of the authors' propositions.

(11) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A) analyze the clarity of the objective(s) of procedural text (e.g., consider reading instructions for software, warranties, consumer publications); and

(B) analyze factual, quantitative, or technical data presented in multiple graphical sources.

(12) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A) compare and contrast how events are presented and information is communicated by visual images (e.g., graphic art, illustrations, news photographs) versus non-visual texts;

(B) analyze how messages in media are conveyed through visual and sound techniques (e.g., editing, reaction shots, sequencing, background music);

(C) compare and contrast coverage of the same event in various media (e.g., newspapers, television, documentaries, blogs, Internet); and

(D) evaluate changes in formality and tone within the same medium for specific audiences and purposes.

(13) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting the correct genre for conveying the intended meaning to multiple audiences, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B) structure ideas in a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and the rhetorical devices used to convey meaning;

(C) revise drafts to improve style, word choice, figurative language, sentence variety, and subtlety of meaning after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed;

(D) edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E) revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(14) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are responsible for at least two forms of literary writing. Students are expected to:

(A) write an engaging story with a well-developed conflict and resolution, interesting and believable characters, and a range of literary strategies (e.g., dialogue, suspense) and devices to enhance the plot;

(B) write a poem using a variety of poetic techniques (e.g., structural elements, figurative language) and a variety of poetic forms (e.g., sonnets, ballads); and

(C) write a script with an explicit or implicit theme and details that contribute to a definite mood or tone.

(15) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A) write an analytical essay of sufficient length that includes:

(i) effective introductory and concluding paragraphs and a variety of sentence structures;

(ii) rhetorical devices and transitions between paragraphs;

(iii) a controlling idea or thesis;

(iv) an organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience, and context; and

(v) relevant information and valid inferences;

(B) write procedural or work-related documents (e.g., instructions, e-mails, correspondence, memos, project plans) that include:

(i) organized and accurately conveyed information; and

(ii) reader-friendly formatting techniques;

(C) write an interpretative response to an expository or a literary text (e.g., essay or review) that:

(i) extends beyond a summary and literal analysis;

(ii) addresses the writing skills for an analytical essay and provides evidence from the text using embedded quotations; and

(iii) analyzes the aesthetic effects of an author's use of stylistic or rhetorical devices; and

(D) produce a multimedia presentation (e.g., documentary, class newspaper, docudrama, infomercial, visual or textual parodies, theatrical production) with graphics, images, and sound that conveys a distinctive point of view and appeals to a specific audience.

(16) Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write an argumentative essay to the appropriate audience that includes:

(A) a clear thesis or position based on logical reasons supported by precise and relevant evidence;

(B) consideration of the whole range of information and views on the topic and accurate and honest representation of these views;

(C) counter-arguments based on evidence to anticipate and address objections;

(D) an organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context; and

(E) an analysis of the relative value of specific data, facts, and ideas.

(17) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i) more complex active and passive tenses and verbals (gerunds, infinitives, participles);

(ii) restrictive and nonrestrictive relative clauses; and

(iii) reciprocal pronouns (e.g., each other, one another);

(B) identify and use the subjunctive mood to express doubts, wishes, and possibilities; and

(C) use a variety of correctly structured sentences (e.g., compound, complex, compound-complex).

(18) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A) use conventions of capitalization; and

(B) use correct punctuation marks including:

(i) quotation marks to indicate sarcasm or irony;

(ii) comma placement in nonrestrictive phrases, clauses, and contrasting expressions; and

(iii) dashes to emphasize parenthetical information.

(19) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to spell correctly, including using various resources to determine and check correct spellings.

(20) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A) brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate a major research question to address the major research topic; and

(B) formulate a plan for engaging in research on a complex, multi-faceted topic.

(21) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A) follow the research plan to compile data from authoritative sources in a manner that identifies the major issues and debates within the field of inquiry;

(B) organize information gathered from multiple sources to create a variety of graphics and forms (e.g., notes, learning logs); and

(C) paraphrase, summarize, quote, and accurately cite all researched information according to a standard format (e.g., author, title, page number).

(22) Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:

(A) modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan;

(B) evaluate the relevance of information to the topic and determine the reliability, validity, and accuracy of sources (including Internet sources) by examining their authority and objectivity; and

(C) critique the research process at each step to implement changes as the need occurs and is identified.

(23) Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into a written or an oral presentation that:

(A) marshals evidence in support of a clear thesis statement and related claims;

(B) provides an analysis for the audience that reflects a logical progression of ideas and a clearly stated point of view;

(C) uses graphics and illustrations to help explain concepts where appropriate;

(D) uses a variety of evaluative tools (e.g., self-made rubrics, peer reviews, teacher and expert evaluations) to examine the quality of the research; and

(E) uses a style manual (e.g., Modern Language Association, Chicago Manual of Style) to document sources and format written materials.

(24) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) listen responsively to a speaker by taking notes that summarize, synthesize, or highlight the speaker's ideas for critical reflection and by asking questions related to the content for clarification and elaboration;

(B) follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, solve problems, and complete processes; and

(C) evaluate the effectiveness of a speaker's main and supporting ideas.

(25) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to give presentations using informal, formal, and technical language effectively to meet the needs of audience, purpose, and occasion, employing eye contact, speaking rate (e.g., pauses for effect), volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(26) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate productively in teams, building on the ideas of others, contributing relevant information, developing a plan for consensus-building, and setting ground rules for decision-making.

§110.32: English Language Arts and Reading, English II (One Credit), Beginning with School Year 2009-2010

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In English II, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read and write on a daily basis.

(2) For students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition.

(A) English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation.

(B) For ELLs, comprehension of texts requires additional scaffolds to support comprehensible input. ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to further vocabulary development. Vocabulary needs to be taught in the context of connected discourse so that language is meaningful. ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in English differ from those in their native language. At the same time English learners are learning in English, the focus is on academic English, concepts, and the language structures specific to the content.

(C) During initial stages of English development, ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. However, English language learners' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and learn to learn in English simultaneously.

(3) To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations in English II as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4) To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A) determine the meaning of grade-level technical academic English words in multiple content areas (e.g., science, mathematics, social studies, the arts) derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

(B) analyze textual context (within a sentence and in larger sections of text) to distinguish between the denotative and connotative meanings of words;

(C) infer word meaning through the identification and analysis of analogies and other word relationships;

(D) show the relationship between the origins and meaning of foreign words or phrases used frequently in written English and historical events or developments (e.g., glasnost, avant-garde, coup d'état); and

(E) use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to determine or confirm the meanings of words and phrases, including their connotations and denotations, and their etymology.

(2) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) compare and contrast differences in similar themes expressed in different time periods;

(B) analyze archetypes (e.g., journey of a hero, tragic flaw) in mythic, traditional and classical literature; and

(C) relate the figurative language of a literary work to its historical and cultural setting.

(3) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the structure or prosody (e.g., meter, rhyme scheme) and graphic elements (e.g., line length, punctuation, word position) in poetry.

(4) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze how archetypes and motifs in drama affect the plot of plays.

(5) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) analyze isolated scenes and their contribution to the success of the plot as a whole in a variety of works of fiction;

(B) analyze differences in the characters' moral dilemmas in works of fiction across different countries or cultures;

(C) evaluate the connection between forms of narration (e.g., unreliable, omniscient) and tone in works of fiction; and

(D) demonstrate familiarity with works by authors from non-English-speaking literary traditions with emphasis on 20th century world literature.

(6) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to evaluate the role of syntax and diction and the effect of voice, tone, and imagery on a speech, literary essay, or other forms of literary nonfiction.

(7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the function of symbolism, allegory, and allusions in literary works.

(8) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the controlling idea and specific purpose of a passage and the textual elements that support and elaborate it, including both the most important details and the less important details.

(9) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) summarize text and distinguish between a summary and a critique and identify non-essential information in a summary and unsubstantiated opinions in a critique;

(B) distinguish among different kinds of evidence (e.g., logical, empirical, anecdotal) used to support conclusions and arguments in texts;

(C) make and defend subtle inferences and complex conclusions about the ideas in text and their organizational patterns; and

(D) synthesize and make logical connections between ideas and details in several texts selected to reflect a range of viewpoints on the same topic and support those findings with textual evidence.

(10) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:

(A) explain shifts in perspective in arguments about the same topic and evaluate the accuracy of the evidence used to support the different viewpoints within those arguments; and

(B) analyze contemporary political debates for such rhetorical and logical fallacies as appeals to commonly held opinions, false dilemmas, appeals to pity, and personal attacks.

(11) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A) evaluate text for the clarity of its graphics and its visual appeal; and

(B) synthesize information from multiple graphical sources to draw conclusions about the ideas presented (e.g., maps, charts, schematics).

(12) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A) evaluate how messages presented in media reflect social and cultural views in ways different from traditional texts;

(B) analyze how messages in media are conveyed through visual and sound techniques (e.g., editing, reaction shots, sequencing, background music);

(C) examine how individual perception or bias in coverage of the same event influences the audience; and

(D) evaluate changes in formality and tone within the same medium for specific audiences and purposes.

(13) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting the correct genre for conveying the intended meaning to multiple audiences, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B) structure ideas in a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and rhetorical devices used to convey meaning;

(C) revise drafts to improve style, word choice, figurative language, sentence variety, and subtlety of meaning after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed;

(D) edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E) revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(14) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are responsible for at least two forms of literary writing. Students are expected to:

(A) write an engaging story with a well-developed conflict and resolution, interesting and believable characters, a range of literary strategies (e.g., dialogue, suspense) and devices to enhance the plot, and sensory details that define the mood or tone;

(B) write a poem using a variety of poetic techniques (e.g., structural elements, figurative language) and a variety of poetic forms (e.g., sonnets, ballads); and

(C) write a script with an explicit or implicit theme and details that contribute to a definite mood or tone.

(15) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A) write an analytical essay of sufficient length that includes:

(i) effective introductory and concluding paragraphs and a variety of sentence structures;

(ii) rhetorical devices and transitions between paragraphs;

(iii) a thesis or controlling idea;

(iv) an organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience, and context;

(v) relevant evidence and well-chosen details; and

(vi) distinctions about the relative value of specific data, facts, and ideas that support the thesis statement;

(B) write procedural or work-related documents (e.g., instructions, e-mails, correspondence, memos, project plans) that include:

(i) organized and accurately conveyed information;

(ii) reader-friendly formatting techniques; and

(iii) anticipation of readers' questions;

(C) write an interpretative response to an expository or a literary text (e.g., essay or review) that:

(i) extends beyond a summary and literal analysis;

(ii) addresses the writing skills for an analytical essay and provides evidence from the text using embedded quotations; and

(iii) analyzes the aesthetic effects of an author's use of stylistic and rhetorical devices; and

(D) produce a multimedia presentation (e.g., documentary, class newspaper, docudrama, infomercial, visual or textual parodies, theatrical production) with graphics, images, and sound that conveys a distinctive point of view and appeals to a specific audience.

(16) Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write an argumentative essay to the appropriate audience that includes:

(A) a clear thesis or position based on logical reasons supported by precise and relevant evidence;

(B) consideration of the whole range of information and views on the topic and accurate and honest representation of these views (i.e., in the author's own words and not out of context);

(C) counter-arguments based on evidence to anticipate and address objections;

(D) an organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context;

(E) an analysis of the relative value of specific data, facts, and ideas; and

(F) a range of appropriate appeals (e.g., descriptions, anecdotes, case studies, analogies, illustrations).

(17) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i) more complex active and passive tenses and verbals (gerunds, infinitives, participles);

(ii) restrictive and nonrestrictive relative clauses; and

(iii) reciprocal pronouns (e.g., each other, one another);

(B) identify and use the subjunctive mood to express doubts, wishes, and possibilities; and

(C) use a variety of correctly structured sentences (e.g., compound, complex, compound-complex).

(18) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A) use conventions of capitalization; and

(B) use correct punctuation marks including:

(i) comma placement in nonrestrictive phrases, clauses, and contrasting expressions;

(ii) quotation marks to indicate sarcasm or irony; and

(iii) dashes to emphasize parenthetical information.

(19) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to spell correctly, including using various resources to determine and check correct spellings.

(20) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A) brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate a major research question to address the major research topic; and

(B) formulate a plan for engaging in research on a complex, multi-faceted topic.

(21) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A) follow the research plan to compile data from authoritative sources in a manner that identifies the major issues and debates within the field of inquiry;

(B) organize information gathered from multiple sources to create a variety of graphics and forms (e.g., notes, learning logs); and

(C) paraphrase, summarize, quote, and accurately cite all researched information according to a standard format (e.g., author, title, page number).

(22) Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:

(A) modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan;

(B) evaluate the relevance of information to the topic and determine the reliability, validity, and accuracy of sources (including Internet sources) by examining their authority and objectivity; and

(C) critique the research process at each step to implement changes as the need occurs and is identified.

(23) Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into a written or an oral presentation that:

(A) marshals evidence in support of a clear thesis statement and related claims;

(B) provides an analysis for the audience that reflects a logical progression of ideas and a clearly stated point of view;

(C) uses graphics and illustrations to help explain concepts where appropriate;

(D) uses a variety of evaluative tools (e.g., self-made rubrics, peer reviews, teacher and expert evaluations) to examine the quality of the research; and

(E) uses a style manual (e.g., Modern Language Association, Chicago Manual of Style) to document sources and format written materials.

(24) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) listen responsively to a speaker by taking notes that summarize, synthesize, or highlight the speaker's ideas for critical reflection and by asking questions related to the content for clarification and elaboration;

(B) follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, solve problems, and complete processes; and

(C) evaluate how the style and structure of a speech support or undermine its purpose or meaning.

(25) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to advance a coherent argument that incorporates a clear thesis and a logical progression of valid evidence from reliable sources and that employs eye contact, speaking rate (e.g., pauses for effect), volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(26) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate productively in teams, building on the ideas of others, contributing relevant information, developing a plan for consensus-building, and setting ground rules for decision-making.

§110.33: English Language Arts and Reading, English III (One Credit), Beginning with School Year 2009-2010

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In English III, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read and write on a daily basis.

(2) For students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition.

(A) English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation.

(B) For ELLs, comprehension of texts requires additional scaffolds to support comprehensible input. ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to further vocabulary development. Vocabulary needs to be taught in the context of connected discourse so that language is meaningful. ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in English differ from those in their native language. At the same time English learners are learning in English, the focus is on academic English, concepts, and the language structures specific to the content.

(C) During initial stages of English development, ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. However, English language learners' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and learn to learn in English simultaneously.

(3) To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations in English III as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4) To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A) determine the meaning of grade-level technical academic English words in multiple content areas (e.g., science, mathematics, social studies, the arts) derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

(B) analyze textual context (within a sentence and in larger sections of text) to draw conclusions about the nuance in word meanings;

(C) infer word meaning through the identification and analysis of analogies and other word relationships;

(D) recognize and use knowledge of cognates in different languages and of word origins to determine the meaning of words; and

(E) use general and specialized dictionaries, thesauri, glossaries, histories of language, books of quotations, and other related references (printed or electronic) as needed.

(2) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) analyze the way in which the theme or meaning of a selection represents a view or comment on the human condition;

(B) relate the characters and text structures of mythic, traditional, and classical literature to 20th and 21st century American novels, plays, or films; and

(C) relate the main ideas found in a literary work to primary source documents from its historical and cultural setting.

(3) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the effects of metrics, rhyme schemes (e.g., end, internal, slant, eye), and other conventions in American poetry.

(4) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the themes and characteristics in different periods of modern American drama.

(5) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) evaluate how different literary elements (e.g., figurative language, point of view) shape the author's portrayal of the plot and setting in works of fiction;

(B) analyze the internal and external development of characters through a range of literary devices;

(C) analyze the impact of narration when the narrator's point of view shifts from one character to another; and

(D) demonstrate familiarity with works by authors in American fiction from each major literary period.

(6) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze how rhetorical techniques (e.g., repetition, parallel structure, understatement, overstatement) in literary essays, true life adventures, and historically important speeches influence the reader, evoke emotions, and create meaning.

(7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the meaning of classical, mythological, and biblical allusions in words, phrases, passages, and literary works.

(8) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze how the style, tone, and diction of a text advance the author's purpose and perspective or stance.

(9) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) summarize a text in a manner that captures the author's viewpoint, its main ideas, and its elements without taking a position or expressing an opinion;

(B) distinguish between inductive and deductive reasoning and analyze the elements of deductively and inductively reasoned texts and the different ways conclusions are supported;

(C) make and defend subtle inferences and complex conclusions about the ideas in text and their organizational patterns; and

(D) synthesize ideas and make logical connections (e.g., thematic links, author analyses) between and among multiple texts representing similar or different genres and technical sources and support those findings with textual evidence.

(10) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:

(A) evaluate how the author's purpose and stated or perceived audience affect the tone of persuasive texts; and

(B) analyze historical and contemporary political debates for such logical fallacies as non-sequiturs, circular logic, and hasty generalizations.

(11) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A) evaluate the logic of the sequence of information presented in text (e.g., product support material, contracts); and

(B) translate (from text to graphic or from graphic to text) complex, factual, quantitative, or technical information presented in maps, charts, illustrations, graphs, timelines, tables, and diagrams.

(12) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A) evaluate how messages presented in media reflect social and cultural views in ways different from traditional texts;

(B) evaluate the interactions of different techniques (e.g., layout, pictures, typeface in print media, images, text, sound in electronic journalism) used in multi-layered media;

(C) evaluate the objectivity of coverage of the same event in various types of media; and

(D) evaluate changes in formality and tone across various media for different audiences and purposes.

(13) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting the correct genre for conveying the intended meaning to multiple audiences, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B) structure ideas in a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and rhetorical devices to convey meaning;

(C) revise drafts to clarify meaning and achieve specific rhetorical purposes, consistency of tone, and logical organization by rearranging the words, sentences, and paragraphs to employ tropes (e.g., metaphors, similes, analogies, hyperbole, understatement, rhetorical questions, irony), schemes (e.g., parallelism, antithesis, inverted word order, repetition, reversed structures), and by adding transitional words and phrases;

(D) edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E) revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(14) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are responsible for at least two forms of literary writing. Students are expected to:

(A) write an engaging story with a well-developed conflict and resolution, complex and non-stereotypical characters, a range of literary strategies (e.g., dialogue, suspense) and devices to enhance the plot, and sensory details that define the mood or tone;

(B) write a poem that reflects an awareness of poetic conventions and traditions within different forms (e.g., sonnets, ballads, free verse); and

(C) write a script with an explicit or implicit theme, using a variety of literary techniques.

(15) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A) write an analytical essay of sufficient length that includes:

(i) effective introductory and concluding paragraphs and a variety of sentence structures;

(ii) rhetorical devices and transitions between paragraphs;

(iii) a clear thesis statement or controlling idea;

(iv) a clear organizational schema for conveying ideas;

(v) relevant and substantial evidence and well-chosen details; and

(vi) information on multiple relevant perspectives and a consideration of the validity, reliability, and relevance of primary and secondary sources;

(B) write procedural or work-related documents (e.g., résumés, proposals, college applications, operation manuals) that include:

(i) a clearly stated purpose combined with a well-supported viewpoint on the topic;

(ii) appropriate formatting structures (e.g., headings, graphics, white space);

(iii) relevant questions that engage readers and consider their needs;

(iv) accurate technical information in accessible language; and

(v) appropriate organizational structures supported by facts and details (documented if appropriate);

(C) write an interpretation of an expository or a literary text that:

(i) advances a clear thesis statement;

(ii) addresses the writing skills for an analytical essay, including references to and commentary on quotations from the text;

(iii) analyzes the aesthetic effects of an author's use of stylistic or rhetorical devices;

(iv) identifies and analyzes the ambiguities, nuances, and complexities within the text; and

(v) anticipates and responds to readers' questions or contradictory information; and

(D) produce a multimedia presentation (e.g., documentary, class newspaper, docudrama, infomercial, visual or textual parodies, theatrical production) with graphics, images, and sound that appeals to a specific audience and synthesizes information from multiple points of view.

(16) Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write an argumentative essay (e.g., evaluative essays, proposals) to the appropriate audience that includes:

(A) a clear thesis or position based on logical reasons supported by precise and relevant evidence, including facts, expert opinions, quotations, and/or expressions of commonly accepted beliefs;

(B) accurate and honest representation of divergent views (i.e., in the author's own words and not out of context);

(C) an organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context;

(D) information on the complete range of relevant perspectives;

(E) demonstrated consideration of the validity and reliability of all primary and secondary sources used; and

(F) language attentively crafted to move a disinterested or opposed audience, using specific rhetorical devices to back up assertions (e.g., appeals to logic, emotions, ethical beliefs).

(17) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) use and understand the function of different types of clauses and phrases (e.g., adjectival, noun, adverbial clauses and phrases); and

(B) use a variety of correctly structured sentences (e.g., compound, complex, compound-complex).

(18) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to correctly and consistently use conventions of punctuation and capitalization.

(19) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to spell correctly, including using various resources to determine and check correct spellings.

(20) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A) brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate a major research question to address the major research topic; and

(B) formulate a plan for engaging in in-depth research on a complex, multi-faceted topic.

(21) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A) follow the research plan to gather evidence from experts on the topic and texts written for informed audiences in the field, distinguishing between reliable and unreliable sources and avoiding over-reliance on one source;

(B) systematically organize relevant and accurate information to support central ideas, concepts, and themes, outline ideas into conceptual maps/timelines, and separate factual data from complex inferences; and

(C) paraphrase, summarize, quote, and accurately cite all researched information according to a standard format (e.g., author, title, page number), differentiating among primary, secondary, and other sources.

(22) Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:

(A) modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan;

(B) differentiate between theories and the evidence that supports them and determine whether the evidence found is weak or strong and how that evidence helps create a cogent argument; and

(C) critique the research process at each step to implement changes as the need occurs and is identified.

(23) Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into an extended written or oral presentation that:

(A) provides an analysis that supports and develops personal opinions, as opposed to simply restating existing information;

(B) uses a variety of formats and rhetorical strategies to argue for the thesis;

(C) develops an argument that incorporates the complexities of and discrepancies in information from multiple sources and perspectives while anticipating and refuting counter-arguments;

(D) uses a style manual (e.g., Modern Language Association, Chicago Manual of Style) to document sources and format written materials; and

(E) is of sufficient length and complexity to address the topic.

(24) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) listen responsively to a speaker by framing inquiries that reflect an understanding of the content and by identifying the positions taken and the evidence in support of those positions; and

(B) evaluate the clarity and coherence of a speaker's message and critique the impact of a speaker's diction and syntax on an audience.

(25) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to give a formal presentation that exhibits a logical structure, smooth transitions, accurate evidence, well-chosen details, and rhetorical devices, and that employs eye contact, speaking rate (e.g., pauses for effect), volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(26) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate productively in teams, offering ideas or judgments that are purposeful in moving the team towards goals, asking relevant and insightful questions, tolerating a range of positions and ambiguity in decision-making, and evaluating the work of the group based on agreed-upon criteria.

§110.34: English Language Arts and Reading, English IV (One Credit), Beginning with School Year 2009-2010

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In English IV, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read and write on a daily basis.

(2) For students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition.

(A) English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation.

(B) For ELLs, comprehension of texts requires additional scaffolds to support comprehensible input. ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to further vocabulary development. Vocabulary needs to be taught in the context of connected discourse so that language is meaningful. ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in English differ from those in their native language. At the same time English learners are learning in English, the focus is on academic English, concepts, and the language structures specific to the content.

(C) During initial stages of English development, ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. However, English language learners' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and learn to learn in English simultaneously.

(3) To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations in English IV as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4) To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A) determine the meaning of technical academic English words in multiple content areas (e.g., science, mathematics, social studies, the arts) derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

(B) analyze textual context (within a sentence and in larger sections of text) to draw conclusions about the nuance in word meanings;

(C) use the relationship between words encountered in analogies to determine their meanings (e.g., synonyms/antonyms, connotation/denotation);

(D) analyze and explain how the English language has developed and been influenced by other languages; and

(E) use general and specialized dictionaries, thesauri, histories of language, books of quotations, and other related references (printed or electronic) as needed.

(2) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) compare and contrast works of literature that express a universal theme;

(B) compare and contrast the similarities and differences in classical plays with their modern day novel, play, or film versions; and

(C) relate the characters, setting, and theme of a literary work to the historical, social, and economic ideas of its time.

(3) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to evaluate the changes in sound, form, figurative language, graphics, and dramatic structure in poetry across literary time periods.

(4) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to evaluate how the structure and elements of drama change in the works of British dramatists across literary periods.

(5) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) analyze how complex plot structures (e.g., subplots) and devices (e.g., foreshadowing, flashbacks, suspense) function and advance the action in a work of fiction;

(B) analyze the moral dilemmas and quandaries presented in works of fiction as revealed by the underlying motivations and behaviors of the characters;

(C) compare and contrast the effects of different forms of narration across various genres of fiction; and

(D) demonstrate familiarity with works of fiction by British authors from each major literary period.

(6) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the effect of ambiguity, contradiction, subtlety, paradox, irony, sarcasm, and overstatement in literary essays, speeches, and other forms of literary nonfiction.

(7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze how the author's patterns of imagery, literary allusions, and conceits reveal theme, set tone, and create meaning in metaphors, passages, and literary works.

(8) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the consistency and clarity of the expression of the controlling idea and the ways in which the organizational and rhetorical patterns of text support or confound the author's meaning or purpose.

(9) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) summarize a text in a manner that captures the author's viewpoint, its main ideas, and its elements without taking a position or expressing an opinion;

(B) explain how authors writing on the same issue reached different conclusions because of differences in assumptions, evidence, reasoning, and viewpoints;

(C) make and defend subtle inferences and complex conclusions about the ideas in text and their organizational patterns; and

(D) synthesize ideas and make logical connections (e.g., thematic links, author analysis) among multiple texts representing similar or different genres and technical sources and support those findings with textual evidence.

(10) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:

(A) evaluate the merits of an argument, action, or policy by analyzing the relationships (e.g., implication, necessity, sufficiency) among evidence, inferences, assumptions, and claims in text; and

(B) draw conclusions about the credibility of persuasive text by examining its implicit and stated assumptions about an issue as conveyed by the specific use of language.

(11) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A) draw conclusions about how the patterns of organization and hierarchic structures support the understandability of text; and

(B) evaluate the structures of text (e.g., format, headers) for their clarity and organizational coherence and for the effectiveness of their graphic representations.

(12) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A) evaluate how messages presented in media reflect social and cultural views in ways different from traditional texts;

(B) evaluate the interactions of different techniques (e.g., layout, pictures, typeface in print media, images, text, sound in electronic journalism) used in multi-layered media;

(C) evaluate how one issue or event is represented across various media to understand the notions of bias, audience, and purpose; and

(D) evaluate changes in formality and tone across various media for different audiences and purposes.

(13) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting the correct genre for conveying the intended meaning to multiple audiences, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B) structure ideas in a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and the rhetorical devices to convey meaning;

(C) revise drafts to clarify meaning and achieve specific rhetorical purposes, consistency of tone, and logical organization by rearranging the words, sentences, and paragraphs to employ tropes (e.g., metaphors, similes, analogies, hyperbole, understatement, rhetorical questions, irony), schemes (e.g., parallelism, antithesis, inverted word order, repetition, reversed structures), and by adding transitional words and phrases;

(D) edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E) revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(14) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are responsible for at least two forms of literary writing. Students are expected to:

(A) write an engaging story with a well-developed conflict and resolution, a clear theme, complex and non-stereotypical characters, a range of literary strategies (e.g., dialogue, suspense), devices to enhance the plot, and sensory details that define the mood or tone;

(B) write a poem that reflects an awareness of poetic conventions and traditions within different forms (e.g., sonnets, ballads, free verse); and

(C) write a script with an explicit or implicit theme, using a variety of literary techniques.

(15) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A) write an analytical essay of sufficient length that includes:

(i) effective introductory and concluding paragraphs and a variety of sentence structures;

(ii) rhetorical devices and transitions between paragraphs;

(iii) a clear thesis statement or controlling idea;

(iv) a clear organizational schema for conveying ideas;

(v) relevant and substantial evidence and well-chosen details;

(vi) information on all relevant perspectives and consideration of the validity, reliability, and relevance of primary and secondary sources; and

(vii) an analysis of views and information that contradict the thesis statement and the evidence presented for it;

(B) write procedural and work-related documents (e.g., résumés, proposals, college applications, operation manuals) that include:

(i) a clearly stated purpose combined with a well-supported viewpoint on the topic;

(ii) appropriate formatting structures (e.g., headings, graphics, white space);

(iii) relevant questions that engage readers and address their potential problems and misunderstandings;

(iv) accurate technical information in accessible language; and

(v) appropriate organizational structures supported by facts and details (documented if appropriate);

(C) write an interpretation of an expository or a literary text that:

(i) advances a clear thesis statement;

(ii) addresses the writing skills for an analytical essay including references to and commentary on quotations from the text;

(iii) analyzes the aesthetic effects of an author's use of stylistic or rhetorical devices;

(iv) identifies and analyzes ambiguities, nuances, and complexities within the text; and

(v) anticipates and responds to readers' questions and contradictory information; and

(D) produce a multimedia presentation (e.g., documentary, class newspaper, docudrama, infomercial, visual or textual parodies, theatrical production) with graphics, images, and sound that appeals to a specific audience and synthesizes information from multiple points of view.

(16) Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write an argumentative essay (e.g., evaluative essays, proposals) to the appropriate audience that includes:

(A) a clear thesis or position based on logical reasons with various forms of support (e.g., hard evidence, reason, common sense, cultural assumptions);

(B) accurate and honest representation of divergent views (i.e., in the author's own words and not out of context);

(C) an organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context;

(D) information on the complete range of relevant perspectives;

(E) demonstrated consideration of the validity and reliability of all primary and secondary sources used;

(F) language attentively crafted to move a disinterested or opposed audience, using specific rhetorical devices to back up assertions (e.g., appeals to logic, emotions, ethical beliefs); and

(G) an awareness and anticipation of audience response that is reflected in different levels of formality, style, and tone.

(17) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) use and understand the function of different types of clauses and phrases (e.g., adjectival, noun, adverbial clauses and phrases); and

(B) use a variety of correctly structured sentences (e.g., compound, complex, compound-complex).

(18) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to correctly and consistently use conventions of punctuation and capitalization.

(19) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to spell correctly, including using various resources to determine and check correct spellings.

(20) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A) brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate a major research question to address the major research topic; and

(B) formulate a plan for engaging in in-depth research on a complex, multi-faceted topic.

(21) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A) follow the research plan to gather evidence from experts on the topic and texts written for informed audiences in the field, distinguishing between reliable and unreliable sources and avoiding over-reliance on one source;

(B) systematically organize relevant and accurate information to support central ideas, concepts, and themes, outline ideas into conceptual maps/timelines, and separate factual data from complex inferences; and

(C) paraphrase, summarize, quote, and accurately cite all researched information according to a standard format (e.g., author, title, page number), differentiating among primary, secondary, and other sources.

(22) Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:

(A) modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan;

(B) differentiate between theories and the evidence that supports them and determine whether the evidence found is weak or strong and how that evidence helps create a cogent argument; and

(C) critique the research process at each step to implement changes as the need occurs and is identified.

(23) Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into an extended written or oral presentation that:

(A) provides an analysis that supports and develops personal opinions, as opposed to simply restating existing information;

(B) uses a variety of formats and rhetorical strategies to argue for the thesis;

(C) develops an argument that incorporates the complexities of and discrepancies in information from multiple sources and perspectives while anticipating and refuting counter-arguments;

(D) uses a style manual (e.g., Modern Language Association, Chicago Manual of Style) to document sources and format written materials; and

(E) is of sufficient length and complexity to address the topic.

(24) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) listen responsively to a speaker by framing inquiries that reflect an understanding of the content and by identifying the positions taken and the evidence in support of those positions; and

(B) assess the persuasiveness of a presentation based on content, diction, rhetorical strategies, and delivery.

(25) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to formulate sound arguments by using elements of classical speeches (e.g., introduction, first and second transitions, body, and conclusion), the art of persuasion, rhetorical devices, eye contact, speaking rate (e.g., pauses for effect), volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(26) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate productively in teams, offering ideas or judgments that are purposeful in moving the team towards goals, asking relevant and insightful questions, tolerating a range of positions and ambiguity in decision-making, and evaluating the work of the group based on agreed-upon criteria.

§110.46: Independent Study in English (One-Half to One Credit)

(a) Introduction.

(1) Students enrolled in Independent Study in English write in a variety of forms for a variety of audiences and purposes. High school students are expected to plan, draft, and complete written compositions on a regular basis, and carefully examine their papers for clarity, engaging language, and the correct use of the conventions and mechanics of written English. Independent Study in English students are expected to write in a variety of forms including business, personal, literary, and persuasive texts for a variety of audiences and purposes. Writing is used as a tool for learning as students create, clarify, critique, and express appreciation for others' ideas and responses. Independent Study in English students evaluate their own written work as well as the work of others. Students continue to read extensively in increasingly difficult texts selected in multiple genres for a variety of purposes. When comprehension breaks down, students effectively and efficiently monitor and adjust their use of a variety of comprehension strategies. Students respond to texts through talking and writing in both traditional print and electronic formats. Students connect their knowledge of the world and the knowledge they gather from other texts with the text being read. For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(2) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Independent Study in English are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Writing. The student uses writing as a tool for learning and research. The student is expected to:

(A) use writing to formulate questions, refine topics, and clarify ideas;

(B) use writing to organize and support what is known and what needs to be learned about a topic;

(C) compile information from primary and secondary sources using available technology;

(D) use writing to discover, record, review, and learn;

(E) organize notes from multiple sources, including primary and secondary sources, in useful and informing ways;

(F) link related information and ideas from a variety of sources;

(G) represent information in a variety of ways such as graphics, conceptual maps, and learning logs;

(H) compile written ideas and representations, interpret empirical data into reports, summaries, or other formats, and draw conclusions; and

(I) use writing as a tool such as to reflect, explore, or problem solve.

(2) Reading. The student inquires through reading and researching self-selected and assigned topics. The student is expected to:

(A) read widely to establish a specific area of interest for further study;

(B) generate relevant, interesting, and researchable questions with instructor guidance and approval;

(C) locate appropriate print and non-print information using text and technical resources, including databases;

(D) use text organizers such as overviews, headings, and graphic features to locate and categorize information;

(E) organize and record new information in systematic ways such as notes, charts, and graphic organizers;

(F) produce research projects and reports in various forms for audiences;

(G) draw relevant questions for further study from the research findings or conclusions; and

(H) conduct a research project(s), producing an original work in print or another medium with a demonstration of advanced skill.

(3) Viewing/representing. The student produces visual representations that communicate with others. The student is expected to:

(A) use a range of techniques in planning and creating media text; and

(B) prepare and present a research project.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.46 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549.

§110.47: Reading I, II, III (One-Half to Three Credits)

(a) Introduction.

(1) Reading I, II, III offers students instruction in word recognition and comprehension strategies and vocabulary to ensure that high school students have an opportunity to read with competence, confidence, and understanding. Students are given opportunities to locate information in varied sources, to read critically, to evaluate sources, and to draw supportable conclusions. Students learn how various texts are organized and how authors choose language for effect. All of these strategies are applied in texts that cross the subject fields. For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(2) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Reading I, II, III, elective courses, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student uses a variety of word recognition strategies. The student is expected to:

(A) apply knowledge of letter-sound correspondences, language structure, and context to recognize words; and

(B) use the keys and entry information in dictionaries, glossaries, and other sources to confirm pronunciations and meanings of unfamiliar words.

(2) The student reads with fluency and understanding in increasingly demanding texts. The student is expected to:

(A) read silently for a sustained period of time;

(B) read orally at a rate that enables comprehension; and

(C) adjust reading rate according to purpose for reading.

(3) The student reads for different purposes in varied sources. The student is expected to:

(A) read to complete a task, to gather information, to be informed, to solve problems, to answer questions, and for pleasure; and

(B) read sources such as literature, diaries, journals, textbooks, maps, newspapers, letters, speeches, memoranda, electronic texts, technical documents, and other media.

(4) The student builds an extensive vocabulary through reading and systematic word study. The student is expected to:

(A) expand vocabulary by reading, listening, and discussing;

(B) determine meanings by using context;

(C) use prefixes, roots, suffixes, word origins, and spelling to understand meanings; and

(D) employ reference aids such as glossary, dictionary, thesaurus, and available technology to determine meanings.

(5) The student comprehends selections using a variety of strategies. The student is expected to:

(A) monitor his/her own reading and adjusts when understanding breaks down such as by rereading, using resources, and questioning;

(B) use previous experience to comprehend;

(C) determine and adjust purpose for reading such as to find out, to understand, to interpret, to enjoy, and to solve problems;

(D) find similarities and differences across texts such as explanations, points of view, or themes;

(E) construct images based on text descriptions;

(F) organize, learn, and recall important ideas from texts and oral presentations such as note taking, outlining, using learning logs, rereading, scanning, and skimming;

(G) summarize texts by identifying main ideas and relevant details;

(H) make inferences such as drawing conclusions and making generalizations or predictions, supporting them with text evidence and experience;

(I) analyze and use text structures such as compare/contrast, cause/effect, and chronological order; and

(J) use test-taking skills such as highlighting, making marginal notes, previewing questions before reading, noticing key words, employing process of elimination, allotting time, and following directions.

(6) The student formulates and supports responses to various types of texts. The student is expected to:

(A) respond aesthetically, inquisitively, critically, and actively to texts;

(B) respond to text through discussion, journal writing, performance, and visual representation; and

(C) support responses by adjusting, giving evidence, and clarifying.

(7) The student reads texts to find information on self-selected and assigned topics. The student is expected to:

(A) generate relevant, interesting, and researchable questions;

(B) locate appropriate print and non-print information using text and technical resources, including databases;

(C) use text organizers such as overviews, headings, and graphic features to locate and categorize information;

(D) organize and record new information such as notes, charts, and graphic organizers;

(E) communicate information gained from reading; and

(F) use compiled information and knowledge to raise additional unanswered questions.

(8) The student reads critically to evaluate texts and the credibility of sources. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the characteristics of well-constructed text;

(B) evaluate the credibility of information sources and their appropriateness for assigned and self-selected topics;

(C) describe how a writer's motivation, stance, or position may affect text credibility, structure, or tone;

(D) analyze aspects of text, such as patterns of organization and choice of language, for persuasive effect;

(E) apply modes of reasoning such as induction and deduction to think critically; and

(F) recognize logical and illogical arguments in text.

(9) The student reads to increase knowledge of his/her own culture, the culture of others, and the common elements of cultures. The student is expected to:

(A) compare text events with his/her own and other readers' experiences; and

(B) recognize and discuss literary themes and connections that cross cultures.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.47 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549.

§110.48: Reading Application and Study Skills (One-Half Credit)

(a) Introduction.

(1) High school students that require or request additional honing of the study skills, especially as the students prepare for the demands of college, may enroll in the one semester course, Reading Application and Study Skills. In this course, students learn techniques for learning from texts including studying word meanings, producing effective summaries, identifying and relating key ideas, drawing and supporting inferences, and reviewing study strategies. In addition, students will have opportunities to respond critically to literary texts. In all cases, interpretations and understandings will be presented through varying forms including through use of available technology. Students accomplish many of the objectives through wide reading as well as use of (cross-curricular) content texts in preparation for post secondary schooling. For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(2) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Reading Application and Study Skills, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student reads widely for different purposes in varied sources. The student is expected to:

(A) read self-selected and assigned texts in such varied sources as literature, diaries, journals, textbooks, maps, newspapers, letters, speeches, memoranda, electronic texts, and other media; and

(B) read to be entertained, to appreciate a writer's craft, to be informed, to take action, and to discover models to use in his/her own writing.

(2) The student builds an extensive vocabulary through reading and systematic word study. The student is expected to:

(A) expand vocabulary through wide reading, listening, and discussion;

(B) rely on context to determine meanings of words and phrases such as figurative language, idioms, multiple meaning words, and technical vocabulary;

(C) apply meanings of prefixes, roots, and suffixes to comprehend;

(D) investigate word origins as an aid to understanding meanings, derivations, and spellings;

(E) use reference material such as glossary, dictionary, thesaurus, and available technology to determine precise meaning and usage;

(F) discriminate between connotative and denotative meanings and interpret the connotative power of words; and

(G) interpret the meaning of analogies in texts.

(3) The student comprehends selections using a variety of strategies. The student is expected to:

(A) monitor his/her own reading strategies and make modifications when understanding breaks down such as rereading, using resources, and questioning;

(B) activate and draw upon background knowledge in order to comprehend;

(C) establish and adjust both immediate and overarching purposes for reading such as to find out, to understand, to interpret, to enjoy, or to solve problems; and

(D) construct images based on text descriptions.

(4) The student reads critically to evaluate texts and the authority of sources. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the characteristics of clear text;

(B) evaluate the credibility of information sources and their appropriateness for various needs;

(C) describe how a writer's motivation, expertise, or stance may affect text credibility, structure, or tone;

(D) analyze aspects of texts such as patterns of organization and choice of language for their effect on audiences;

(E) apply modes of reasoning such as induction and deduction to think critically; and

(F) recognize logical and illogical modes of persuasion in texts.

(5) The student uses study strategies to learn from text. The student is expected to:

(A) learn and recall ideas and concepts from text such as previewing, skimming, scanning, rereading, and asking questions;

(B) recall important information by taking notes or making marginal notations;

(C) summarize information from text through the use of outlines, study guides, or learning logs;

(D) determine important information in test questions by highlighting and underlining;

(E) answer different types of questions, including test-like questions such as multiple choice, open-ended, literal, or interpretive;

(F) produce summaries of texts that include main ideas and their supporting details;

(G) draw inferences and support them with text evidence and experiences;

(H) draw conclusions from text information; and

(I) analyze text structures such as compare/contrast, cause/effect, or chronological order for how they influence understanding.

(6) The student inquires through reading and researching self-selected and assigned topics. The student is expected to:

(A) generate relevant, interesting, and researchable questions;

(B) locate appropriate print and non-print information using text and technical resources, including databases;

(C) use text organizers such as overviews, headings, and graphic features to locate and categorize information;

(D) organize and record new information in systematic ways such as notes, charts, and graphic organizers;

(E) produce research projects and reports in various formats for audiences; and

(F) draw relevant questions for further study from the research findings or conclusions.

(7) The student expresses and supports responses to various types of texts. The student is expected to:

(A) respond to literary texts through various outlets such as discussions, journals, oral interpretations, or enactments;

(B) respond to informational reading through varied and appropriate modes such as writings, performances, projects, graphic displays, and available technology;

(C) negotiate, clarify, and defend responses in large and small discussion groups;

(D) compare reviews of literature, film, and live performance with his/her own responses; and

(E) evaluate his/her own responses to reading for evidence of growth in insight, clarity, and support.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.48 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549.

§110.49: Analysis of Visual Media (One-Half Credit)

(a) Introduction.

(1) Students need to be critical viewers, consumers, and producers of media texts. The ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and produce communication in a variety of forms is an important part of language development. High school students enrolled in Analysis of Visual Media will interpret various media forms for a variety of purposes. In addition, students will critique and analyze the significance of visual representations and learn to produce media messages that communicate with others. For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(2) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Analysis of Visual Media, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student recognizes/interprets visual representations as they apply to visual media. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the historical development of visual media;

(B) distinguish the purposes of various media forms such as information, entertainment, and persuasion; and

(C) recognize strategies used by media to inform, persuade, entertain, and transmit culture such as advertising, perpetuation of stereotypes, use of visual representations, special effects, and language.

(2) The student analyzes and critiques the significance of visual representations. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate the persuasive techniques of media messages such as glittering generalities, associations with personalities, logical fallacies, and use of symbols;

(B) compare and contrast media with other art forms;

(C) analyze techniques used in visual media;

(D) explore the emotional and intellectual effects of visual media on viewers; and

(E) recognize how visual and sound techniques convey messages in media such as special effects, editing, camera angles, reaction shots, sequencing, and music.

(3) The student produces visual representations that communicate with others. The student is expected to:

(A) use a variety of forms and technologies to communicate specific messages;

(B) use a range of techniques to plan and create a media text and reflect critically on the work produced;

(C) study the relationship between subject matter and choice of media for presenting that subject; and

(D) create, present, test, analyze response, and revise a project using such data-gathering techniques as questionnaires, group discussions, and feedback forms.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.49 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549.

§110.50: Media Literacy-Speech (One Credit)

(a) Introduction.

(1) Mass media influence the way meanings and realities are created and shared in contemporary society. Students enrolled in Media Literacy will develop their skill in understanding, analyzing, using, and producing media intelligently. High school students should realize that media can be a vehicle for full participation in academic, social, and democratic processes. Students enrolled in Media Literacy will understand how media influence our tastes, our behavior, our purchasing, and our voting decisions. Students who are media literate understand television, radio, film, and other visual images and auditory messages. For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(2) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Mass Communication, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) History. The student traces the history and evolution of media used for mass communication. The student is expected to:

(A) trace the history and development of each mass medium;

(B) examine the development of the technologies that influence each medium; and

(C) analyze the historical contributions made by various media personnel.

(2) Functions. The student recognizes the functions of mass media. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the roles of media as sources of information, entertainment, persuasion, and education; and

(B) analyze strategies used by media to inform, persuade, entertain, and educate.

(3) Regulations. The student identifies and analyzes regulations that govern media. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the appropriate government agencies that regulate media; and

(B) analyze government regulatory issues regarding censorship, political campaigns, news, ethics, and responsibilities.

(4) Influences. The student analyzes the influence of media. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the influence of viewing and listening habits on individuals;

(B) analyze the influence of media on consumers;

(C) analyze the influence of media in shaping various governmental, social, and cultural norms; and

(D) analyze the influence of media on the democratic processes.

(5) Production. The student analyzes, creates, and evaluates visual and auditory messages. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the contributions and responsibilities of various media personnel;

(B) analyze techniques for producing media messages for specific purposes and effects;

(C) develop skills for organizing, writing and designing media messages for specific purposes and effects;

(D) develop technical and communication skills needed by various media personnel;

(E) plan, organize, produce, and present media messages; and

(F) evaluate media messages and products.

(6) Evaluation. The student evaluates mass media. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and evaluate standards for "quality programming";

(B) determine the contributions of media on the democratic process;

(C) analyze and evaluate media's efforts to address social and cultural problems;

(D) analyze and propose possible ways to improve mass media; and

(E) formulate guidelines for using media effectively to achieve governmental, societal, and cultural goals.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.50 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549.

§110.51: Literary Genres (One-Half to One Credit)

(a) Introduction.

(1) Students enrolled in Literary Genres will spend time analyzing the fictional and poetic elements of literary texts and read to appreciate the writer's craft. High school students will discover how well written literary text can serve as models for their own writing. High school students respond to texts through such varied avenues as talk, print, and electronic formats to connect their knowledge of the world with the text being read. For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(2) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Literary Genres, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student builds an extensive vocabulary through reading and systematic word study. The student is expected to:

(A) expand vocabulary through wide reading, listening, and discussion;

(B) investigate word origins as an aid to understanding meanings, derivations, and spellings, as well as influences on the English language; and

(C) discriminate between connotative and denotative meanings and interpret the connotative power of words.

(2) The student analyzes fictional and poetic elements focusing on how they combine to contribute meaning in literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) compare and contrast varying aspects of texts such as themes, conflicts, and allusions;

(B) propose and provide examples of themes that cross texts;

(C) connect literature to historical context, current events, and his/her own experiences;

(D) analyze relevance of setting and time frame to text's meaning;

(E) identify basic conflicts;

(F) describe the development of plot and how conflicts are addressed and resolved;

(G) analyze characters' traits, motivations, changes, and stereotypical features;

(H) describe how irony, tone, mood, style, and sound of language contribute to the effect of the text;

(I) determine and explain purposes and effects of figurative language, particularly symbolic and metaphoric;

(J) identify and analyze text structures;

(K) recognize archetypes, motifs, and symbols across texts, including heroes and beneficence of nature such as Dawn;

(L) analyze distinctive features of text genre such as biography, historical fiction, short story, dramatic literature, or poetry;

(M) identify how authors create suspense; and

(N) tell how points of view affect tone, characterization, and credibility.

(3) The student reads critically to evaluate texts and the authority of sources. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the characteristics of well-constructed texts;

(B) describe how a writer's motivation, stance, or position may affect text credibility, structure, or tone; and

(C) analyze aspects of texts such as patterns of organization and choice of language for their effect on audiences.

(4) The student reads to increase knowledge of his/her own culture, the culture of others, and the common elements of cultures. The student is expected to:

(A) compare text events with his/her own and other readers' experiences;

(B) recognize distinctive and shared characteristics of cultures through wide reading; and

(C) recognize and discuss themes and connections that cross cultures.

(5) The student uses writing as a tool for learning and research. The student is expected to:

(A) use writing to discover, record, review, and learn; and

(B) link related information and ideas from a variety of sources.

(6) The student communicates with writers inside and outside the classroom, including those representing different cultures. The student is expected to:

(A) examine strategies that writers in different fields use to compose; and

(B) recognize how writers represent and reveal their cultures and traditions in texts.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.51 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549.

§110.52: Creative and Imaginative Writing (One-Half to One Credit)

(a) Introduction.

(1) The study of creative and imaginative writing allows high school students to earn one-half to one credit while developing versatility as a writer. Creative and Imaginative Writing, a rigorous composition course, asks high school students to demonstrate their skill in such forms of writing as essays, short stories, poetry, and drama. All students are expected to demonstrate an understanding of the recursive nature of the writing process, effectively applying the conventions of usage and the mechanics of written English. The students' evaluation of his/her own writing as well as the writing of others insures that students completing this course are able to analyze and discuss published and unpublished pieces of writing, develop and apply criteria for effective writing, and set their own goals as writers. For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(2) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Creative and Imaginative Writing, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student writes for a variety of audiences and purposes to develop versatility as a writer. The student is expected to:

(A) write expressive, informative, and persuasive literary texts effectively;

(B) demonstrate the distinguishing characteristics of various written forms such as essays, short stories, poetry, and drama in his/her own writing;

(C) elaborate by using concrete images, figurative language, sensory observation, dialogue, and other rhetorical devices to enhance meaning;

(D) employ various points of view to communicate effectively;

(E) choose topics and forms to develop fluency and voice;

(F) use word choice, sentence structure, and repetition to create tone; and

(G) organize ideas in writing to ensure coherence, logical progression, and support for ideas.

(2) The student selects and uses recursive writing processes for self-initiated and assigned writing. The student is expected to:

(A) select and apply prewriting strategies to generate ideas, develop voice, and plan;

(B) develop drafts by organizing ideas such as paragraphing, outlining, adding, and deleting;

(C) use vocabulary, sentence structure, organization, and rhetorical devices appropriate to audience and purpose;

(D) use effective sequence and transitions to achieve coherence and meaning;

(E) revise drafts by rethinking content, organization, and style to better accomplish the task;

(F) frequently refines selected pieces to publish for general and specific audiences;

(G) proofread and edit as appropriate for the conventions of standard written English using resources as needed;

(H) use available technology for aspects of creating, revising, editing, and publishing texts; and

(I) write both independently and/or collaboratively.

(3) The student applies the conventions of usage and the mechanics of written English to communicate clearly and effectively. The student is expected to:

(A) produce legible written work, including handwritten, word processed, and typed documents;

(B) use correct capitalization and punctuation;

(C) spell with accuracy in the final draft; and

(D) demonstrate control over grammatical elements such as subject-verb agreement, pronoun-antecedent agreement, and verb forms in the final draft.

(4) The student evaluates his/her own writing and the writings of others. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and discuss published pieces as writing models such as use of suspense, repetition for emphasis, various points of view, literary devices, and figurative language;

(B) apply criteria generated by self and others to evaluate writing; and

(C) accumulate, review, and evaluate his/her own written work to determine its strengths and weaknesses and to set goals as a writer.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.52 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549.

§110.53: Research and Technical Writing (One-Half to One Credit)

(a) Introduction.

(1) The study of technical writing allows high school students to earn one-half to one credit while developing skills necessary for writing persuasive and informative texts such as essays, reports, proposals, and memoranda. This rigorous composition course asks high school students to skillfully research a topic or a variety of topics and present that information through a variety of media. All students are expected to demonstrate an understanding of the recursive nature of the writing process, effectively applying the conventions of usage and the mechanics of written English. The students' evaluation of his/her own writing as well as the writing of others insures that students completing this course are able to analyze and discuss published and unpublished pieces of writing, develop and apply criteria for effective writing, and set their own goals as writers. For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(2) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Research and Technical Writing, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student writes for a variety of purposes and audiences. The student is expected to:

(A) write informative and persuasive texts, including essays, reports, and proposals;

(B) use the distinguishing characteristics of various written forms such as essays, scientific reports, speeches, and memoranda;

(C) write in voice and style appropriate to audience and purpose; and

(D) organize ideas in writing to ensure coherence, logical progression, and support for ideas.

(2) The student selects and uses recursive writing processes for self-initiated and assigned writing. The student is expected to:

(A) select and apply prewriting strategies to generate ideas, develop voice, and plan;

(B) employ precise language and technical vocabulary to communicate ideas clearly and concisely;

(C) use sentence structure, organization, and rhetorical devices appropriate to audience and purpose;

(D) use effective sequence and transitions to achieve coherence and meaning;

(E) revise drafts by rethinking content, organization, and style to better accomplish the task;

(F) proofread and edit as appropriate for the conventions of standard written English;

(G) use resources such as texts and other people for editing;

(H) use available technology for aspects of creating, revising, editing, and publishing texts; and

(I) write both independently and collaboratively.

(3) The student writes to investigate self-selected and assigned topics. The student is expected to:

(A) use writing such as learning logs to formulate questions, refine topics, and clarify ideas;

(B) compile information from primary and secondary sources using available technology;

(C) organize and link related information from multiple sources;

(D) represent information in a variety of ways such as graphics and conceptual maps; and

(E) compile written ideas, representations, and interpretations into reports, summaries, or other formats and draw conclusions.

(4) The student applies the conventions of usage and mechanics of written English. The student is expected to:

(A) produce legible written work, including handwritten, word processed, and typed documents;

(B) use correct capitalization and punctuation;

(C) use correct spelling in the final draft;

(D) demonstrate control over grammatical elements such as subject-verb agreement, pronoun-antecedent agreement, and verb forms in final drafts;

(E) use appropriate technical vocabulary; and

(F) consistently use a manual or form such as Modern Language Association (MLA), American Psychological Association (APA), and The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS).

(5) The student evaluates his/her own writing and the writing of others. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and discuss published pieces as writing models;

(B) apply criteria to evaluate writing; and

(C) accumulate, review, and evaluate his/her own written work to determine its strengths and weaknesses and to set goals as a writer.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.53 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549.

§110.54: Practical Writing Skills (One-Half to One Credit)

(a) Introduction.

(1) The study of writing allows high school students to earn one-half to one credit while developing skills necessary for composing business letters and requests for information, as well as for completing job applications and resumes. This course emphasizes skill in the use of conventions and mechanics of written English, the appropriate and effective application of English grammar, and the effective use of vocabulary. Students are expected to understand the recursive nature of the writing process. Evaluation of students' own writing as well as the writing of others insures that students completing this course are able to analyze and evaluate their writing. For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(2) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Practical Writing Skills, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student writes for a variety of audiences and purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) compose business letters with accuracy and clarity;

(B) compose inquiries and requests;

(C) write for authentic, persuasive purposes;

(D) complete written tasks associated with job application such as application form, letters of application, and resume;

(E) complete order forms; and

(F) take notes.

(2) The student relies increasingly on the conventions and mechanics of written English to communicate clearly. The student is expected to:

(A) produce legible written work, including handwritten, word processed, and typed documents;

(B) employ written conventions appropriately such as capitalizing and punctuating for various forms such as business letters and resumes; and

(C) use correct spelling for final products.

(3) The student appropriately applies the rules of usage and grammar to communicate clearly and effectively. The student is expected to:

(A) produce error-free writing by demonstrating control over grammatical elements such as subject-verb agreement, pronoun-antecedent agreement, and appropriate verb forms;

(B) use varied sentence structures to express meanings and achieve desired effect; and

(C) use appropriate vocabulary.

(4) The student selects and uses recursive writing processes as appropriate for self-initiated and assigned writing. The student is expected to:

(A) select and apply prewriting strategies to generate ideas, develop voice, and plan;

(B) develop drafts by organizing ideas such as paragraphing, outlining, adding, and deleting;

(C) use vocabulary, sentence structure, organization, and rhetorical devices appropriate to audience and purpose;

(D) use effective sequence and transitions to achieve coherence and meaning;

(E) revise drafts by rethinking content, organization, and style to better accomplish the task;

(F) edit as appropriate for the conventions of standard written English such as grammar, spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and sentence structure in the final draft;

(G) use resources such as texts and other people as needed for editing;

(H) proofread writing; and

(I) use available technology for creating, revising, editing, and publishing texts.

(5) The student evaluates his/her own writing and the writing of others. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate how well his/her own writing achieves its purposes;

(B) analyze and discuss published pieces as writing models;

(C) apply criteria generated by self and others to evaluate writing; and

(D) accumulate and review his/her own written work to determine its strengths and weaknesses and to set goals as a writer.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.54 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549.

§110.55: Humanities (One Credit)

(a) Introduction.

(1) Humanities is an interdisciplinary course in which students recognize writing as an art form. Students read widely to understand how various authors craft compositions for various aesthetic purposes. This course includes the study of major historical and cultural movements and their relationship to literature and the other fine arts. Humanities is a rigorous course of study in which high school students respond to aesthetic elements in texts and other art forms through outlets such as discussions, journals, oral interpretations, and dramatizations. Students read widely to understand the commonalities that literature shares with the fine arts. In addition, students use written composition to show an in-depth understanding of creative achievements in the arts and literature and how these various art forms are a reflection of history. All students are expected to participate in classroom discussions and presentations that lead to an understanding, appreciation, and enjoyment of critical, creative achievements throughout history. Understanding is demonstrated through a variety of media. For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(2) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Humanities, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student reads widely to recognize writing as an art form. The student is expected to:

(A) read widely to understand authors' craft and to discover models to use in his/her own writing;

(B) recognize the major historical and cultural movements as reflected in various art forms;

(C) identify the elements common to literature and other fine arts;

(D) read literary responses to political, social, and philosophical movements;

(E) identify elements of literary creativity;

(F) develop and apply criteria for evaluating literary works and other art forms; and

(G) read widely to see connections (commonalities) that literature shares with fine arts.

(2) The student expresses and supports responses to various types of texts and compositions. The student is expected to:

(A) respond to aesthetic elements in texts and other art forms through various outlets such as discussions, journals, oral interpretations, and enactments;

(B) use elements of text and other art forms to defend his/her own responses and interpretations;

(C) compare reviews of literature, film performance, and other art forms with his/her own responses;

(D) evaluate his/her own responses to text and other art forms for evidence of growth; and

(E) identify and analyze how various art forms are a reflection of history such as political, social, and philosophical movements.

(3) The student uses writing as a tool for learning and research. The student is expected to:

(A) show an in-depth understanding of creative achievements in literature and the arts through writing;

(B) describe how personal creativity is expressed within the requirements of an art form;

(C) describe the relationship between form and expression; and

(D) analyze art forms.

(4) The student speaks clearly and effectively to audiences for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) participate in discussions that lead to understanding, appreciation, and enjoyment of creative achievements such as:

(i) discuss how personal creativity is expressed within the requirements of an art form;

(ii) discuss conditions that encourage creativity;

(iii) discuss the relationship between form and expression; and

(iv) discuss the major historical and cultural movements as reflected in various art forms; and

(B) analyze art forms orally such as:

(i) discuss structural elements common to literature and the other fine arts;

(ii) discuss literary responses to political, social, and philosophical movements;

(iii) discuss elements of literary creativity;

(iv) discuss criteria for evaluating literary works and other art forms; and

(v) evaluate (orally) literary works and other art forms.

(5) The student understands and interprets visual representations. The student is expected to:

(A) describe how personal creativity is expressed within the requirements of an art form and through the elements of artistic design;

(B) identify conditions that encourage creativity; and

(C) explore the relationship between form and expression.

(6) The student analyzes and critiques the significance of visual representations. The student is expected to:

(A) recognize and evaluate how literature and various other art forms convey messages; and

(B) examine the impact of literature and various other art forms.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.55 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549.

§110.56: Speech Communication (One Credit)

(a) Introduction.

(1) Understanding and developing skills in oral communication are fundamental to all other learning and to all levels of human interaction. Students must understand concepts and processes involved in sending and receiving oral messages, evaluating, and using nonverbal communication, and listening for a variety of purposes. In Speech Communication, students develop communication competence in interpersonal, group, and public interaction to establish and maintain productive relationships and function effectively in social, academic, and citizenship roles. For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(2) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Speech Communication, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Communication process. The student demonstrates knowledge of communication as a process for exchanging messages and creating meaning. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the importance of communication in daily interaction;

(B) identify and analyze the related components of the communication process as a foundation for communication skills;

(C) identify characteristics of oral language and analyze standards for using oral language appropriately;

(D) identify types of nonverbal communication and analyze their effects;

(E) identify the components of the listening process;

(F) identify and analyze standards for making communication choices considering, appropriateness for self, listener, occasion, and task;

(G) explain how perceptions of self and others influence communication;

(H) explain how knowledge, attitudes, needs, and priorities influence communication;

(I) recognize how culture influences communication; and

(J) identify and analyze responsibilities of communicators.

(2) Interpersonal. The student uses appropriate interpersonal communication strategies. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the importance of productive, interpersonal communication;

(B) identify characteristics of effective interpersonal communication such as courtesy, tact, and assertiveness;

(C) use language appropriately in a variety of interpersonal situations;

(D) use appropriate nonverbal communication in interpersonal situations;

(E) use critical, reflective, and empathic listening skills to enhance interpersonal relationships;

(F) participate appropriately in conversations for a variety of purposes;

(G) use effective strategies for making communication decisions, solving problems, and managing conflicts; and

(H) analyze and evaluate the appropriateness of own communication and the communication of others in interpersonal situations.

(3) Group. The student uses appropriate communication in group situations. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the importance of groups in a democratic society;

(B) identify the purposes and functions of various types of informal and formal groups;

(C) demonstrate understanding of basic theories and principles of effective group dynamics;

(D) analyze roles assumed by group members and their influence on group effectiveness;

(E) use appropriate verbal, nonverbal, and listening strategies to communicate effectively in groups;

(F) use effective strategies for problem solving, conflict management, and consensus building in groups;

(G) use parliamentary procedure effectively;

(H) prepare, organize, and present group discussions for an audience;

(I) make appropriate impromptu contributions and/or speeches in group decision making; and

(J) evaluate group effectiveness.

(4) Speech preparation. The student uses appropriate processes and skills for preparing speeches. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze audience, purpose, and occasion;

(B) apply appropriate criteria for choosing and limiting topics;

(C) choose and limit purposes for speeches;

(D) research topics for speeches using a variety of primary, secondary, and electronic sources;

(E) organize speeches using the traditional elements of speech form, including an introduction, body, and conclusion;

(F) use logical patterns of organization such as chronological, topical, and cause/effect to develop specific topics;

(G) organize and develop outlines to reflect logical speech form;

(H) use appropriate logical, ethical, and emotional proofs to support and clarify points;

(I) choose appropriate devices for introductions and conclusions;

(J) use appropriate rhetorical strategies such as clear transition statements, signposts, previews, and summaries for clarity;

(K) make effective choices for using language in speeches such as informal usage for effect, standard English for clarity, and technical language for specificity;

(L) write manuscripts for speeches to enhance oral style and facilitate memory; and

(M) produce and use concise notes and/or visual aids appropriately.

(5) Speech form. The student analyzes speech form. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the importance of public dialogue in a democratic society;

(B) identify and analyze the functions of traditional elements of speech form, including introductions, bodies, and conclusions;

(C) analyze the characteristics of speeches to inform, persuade, or inspire; and

(D) analyze oral and written models of speeches as a basis for developing speech skills.

(6) Speech presentation. The student uses appropriate strategies to rehearse and present. The student is expected to:

(A) use appropriate techniques and strategies to overcome communication apprehension, build self-confidence, gain command of ideas and information, and revise speeches;

(B) use language clearly and appropriately;

(C) use nonverbal strategies appropriately;

(D) use notes, manuscripts, rostrum, visual aids, or electronic devices appropriately; and

(E) demonstrate a lively sense of interaction with audiences.

(7) Speech evaluation. The student uses appropriate strategies to analyze and evaluate speeches. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and evaluate oral and written speech models;

(B) use critical listening skills to evaluate speeches; and

(C) provide oral or written critiques of his/her own and others' speeches.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.56 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549.

§110.57: Public Speaking I, II, III (One-Half to One Credit)

(a) Introduction.

(1) In order to have full participation in the democratic process, students must have a good understanding of public dialogue. Students must learn the concepts and skills related to preparing and presenting public messages and to analyzing and evaluating the messages of others. Within this process, students will gain skills in reading, writing, speaking, listening, and thinking and will examine areas such as invention, organization, style, memory, and delivery. For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(2) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Public Speaking I, II, III, elective courses, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Rhetoric. The student traces the development of the rhetorical perspective. The student is expected to:

(A) recognize the influence of classical rhetoric in shaping Western thought;

(B) explain and use the classical rhetorical canons of invention, organization, style, memory, and delivery;

(C) analyze how modern public address influences public opinion and policy in a democracy;

(D) analyze the ethical responsibilities that accompany freedom of speech;

(E) develop and use critical, deliberative, evaluative, empathic, and appreciative listening skills to analyze and evaluate speeches; and

(F) apply knowledge and understanding of rhetoric to analyze and evaluate oral or written speeches.

(2) Speech forms. The student recognizes and analyzes varied speech forms. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and analyze the traditional elements of speech form, including introduction, body, and conclusion;

(B) identify and analyze logical patterns of organization for specific speech forms;

(C) identify and analyze the characteristics of a speech to inform;

(D) identify and analyze the characteristics of a speech to persuade, including propositions of fact, value, problem, and/or policy;

(E) identify and analyze characteristics of speeches for special occasions; and

(F) analyze and evaluate the rhetorical elements in models of speeches that inform, persuade, or inspire.

(3) Invention. The student plans speeches. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and analyze the audience and occasion as a basis for choosing speech strategies;

(B) select and limit topics for speeches considering his/her own interests timeliness, and importance of the topic;

(C) select and limit purposes for speeches;

(D) research topics using primary and secondary sources, including electronic technology; and

(E) analyze oral and written speech models to evaluate the topic, purpose, audience, and occasion.

(4) Organization. The student organizes speeches. The student is expected to:

(A) apply knowledge of speech form to organize and design speeches;

(B) organize speeches effectively for specific topics and purposes, audiences, and occasions;

(C) choose logical patterns of organization for bodies of speech;

(D) prepare outlines reflecting logical organization; and

(E) analyze and evaluate the organization of oral or written speech models.

(5) Proofs. The student uses valid proofs and appeals in speeches. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the implications of the audience occasion, topic, and purpose as a basis for choosing proofs and appeals for speeches;

(B) choose logical proofs that meet standard tests of evidence;

(C) use logical, ethical, and emotional proofs and appeals to support and clarify claims in speeches;

(D) choose proofs and appeals that enhance a specific topic, purpose, and tone;

(E) choose and develop appropriate devices for introductions and conclusions;

(F) choose or produce effective visual supports; and

(G) analyze and evaluate the proofs and appeals used in oral or written speech models.

(6) Style. The student develops skills in using oral language in public speeches. The student is expected to:

(A) distinguish between oral and written language styles;

(B) write manuscripts to facilitate language choices and enhance oral style;

(C) use rhetorical and stylistic devices to achieve clarity, force, and aesthetic effect;

(D) use informal, standard, and technical language appropriately;

(E) employ previews, transitions, summaries, signposts, and other appropriate rhetorical strategies to enhance clarity; and

(F) evaluate a speaker's style in oral or written speech models.

(7) Delivery. The student uses appropriate strategies for rehearsing and presenting speeches. The student is expected to:

(A) employ techniques and strategies to reduce communication apprehension, develop self-confidence, and facilitate command of information and ideas;

(B) rehearse and employ a variety of delivery strategies;

(C) develop verbal, vocal, and physical skills to enhance presentations;

(D) use notes, manuscripts, rostrum, microphone, visual aids, and/or electronic devices; and

(E) maintain a lively sense of interaction with an audience.

(8) Evaluation. The student analyzes and evaluates speeches. The student is expected to:

(A) use critical, deliberative, and appreciative listening skills to evaluate speeches; and

(B) critique speeches using knowledge of rhetorical principles.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.57 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549.

§110.58: Communication Applications (One-Half Credit)

(a) Introduction.

(1) For successful participation in professional and social life, students must develop effective communication skills. Rapidly expanding technologies and changing social and corporate systems demand that students send clear verbal messages, choose effective nonverbal behaviors, listen for desired results, and apply valid critical-thinking and problem solving processes. Students enrolled in Communication Applications will be expected to identify, analyze, develop, and evaluate communication skills needed for professional and social success in interpersonal situations, group interactions, and personal and professional presentations. For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(2) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Communication Applications are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Communication process. The student demonstrates knowledge of various communication processes in professional and social contexts. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the importance of effective communication skills in professional and social contexts;

(B) identify the components of the communication process and their functions;

(C) identify standards for making appropriate communication choices for self, listener, occasion, and task;

(D) identify the characteristics of oral language and analyze standards for using informal, standard, and technical language appropriately;

(E) identify types of nonverbal communication and their effects;

(F) recognize the importance of effective nonverbal strategies such as a firm handshake, direct eye contact, and appropriate use of space and distance;

(G) identify the components of the listening process;

(H) identify specific kinds of listening such as critical, deliberative, and empathic;

(I) recognize the importance of gathering and using accurate and complete information as a basis for making communication decisions;

(J) identify and analyze ethical and social responsibilities of communicators; and

(K) recognize and analyze appropriate channels of communication in organizations.

(2) Interpersonal. The student uses appropriate interpersonal-communication strategies in professional and social contexts. The student is expected to:

(A) identify types of professional and social relationships, their importance, and the purposes they serve;

(B) employ appropriate verbal, nonverbal, and listening skills to enhance interpersonal relationships;

(C) use communication-management skills to build confidence and develop appropriate assertiveness, tact, and courtesy;

(D) use professional etiquette and protocol in situations such as making introductions, speaking on the telephone, and offering and receiving criticism;

(E) make clear appropriate requests, give clear and accurate directions, ask appropriate and purposeful questions, and respond appropriately to the requests, directions, and questions of others;

(F) participate appropriately in conversations;

(G) communicate effectively in interviews;

(H) identify and use appropriate strategies for dealing with differences, including gender, ethnicity, and age; and

(I) analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of own and others' communication.

(3) Group communication. The student communicates effectively in groups in professional and social contexts. The student is expected to:

(A) identify kinds of groups, their importance, and the purposes they serve;

(B) analyze group dynamics and processes for participating effectively in groups, committees, or teams;

(C) identify and analyze the roles of group members and their influence on group dynamics;

(D) demonstrate skills for assuming productive roles in groups;

(E) use appropriate verbal, nonverbal, and listening strategies to promote group effectiveness;

(F) identify and analyze leadership styles;

(G) use effective communication strategies in leadership roles;

(H) use effective communication strategies for solving problems, managing conflicts, and building consensus in groups; and

(I) analyze the participation and contributions of group members and evaluate group effectiveness.

(4) Presentations. The student makes and evaluates formal and informal professional presentations. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the audience, occasion, and purpose when designing presentations;

(B) determine specific topics and purposes for presentations;

(C) research topics using primary and secondary sources, including electronic technology;

(D) use effective strategies to organize and outline presentations;

(E) use information effectively to support and clarify points in presentations;

(F) prepare scripts or notes for presentations;

(G) prepare and use visual or auditory aids, including technology, to enhance presentations;

(H) use appropriate techniques to manage communication apprehension, build self-confidence, and gain command of the information;

(I) use effective verbal and nonverbal strategies in presentations;

(J) prepare, organize, and participate in an informative or persuasive group discussion for an audience;

(K) make individual presentations to inform, persuade, or motivate an audience;

(L) participate in question and answer sessions following presentations;

(M) apply critical-listening strategies to evaluate presentations; and

(N) evaluate effectiveness of his/her own presentation.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.58 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549.

§110.59: Oral Interpretation I, II, III (One to Three Credits)

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Oral Interpretation, students study the oral reading or performance of a literary text as a communication art. Students enrolled in Oral Interpretation I, II, III will select, research, analyze, adapt, interpret, and perform literary texts. Students focus on intellectual, emotional, sensory, and aesthetic levels of texts to attempt to capture the entirety of the author's work. Individual or group performances of literature will be presented and evaluated. For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(2) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Oral Interpretation I, II, III, elective courses, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Definition and theory. The student recognizes oral interpretation as a communication art. The student is expected to:

(A) explain contemporary definitions and theories of oral interpretation as a communication art;

(B) analyze the role of the interpreter and the ethical responsibilities to the author, the literary text, and the audience; and

(C) develop and use a workable theory of interpretation as a basis for performance choices.

(2) Selection. The student selects literature for performance. The student is expected to:

(A) select literature appropriate for the reader, the audience, and the occasion;

(B) apply standards of literary merit when selecting literature for individual or group performance;

(C) choose literature that can be appropriately adapted; and

(D) select performance materials from a variety of literary genre.

(3) Research. The student uses relevant research to promote understanding of literary works. The student is expected to:

(A) read the text to grasp the author's meaning, theme, tone, and purpose; and

(B) research the author, author's works, literary criticism, allusions in the text, definition and pronunciations of words to enhance understanding and appreciation of the chosen text.

(4) Analysis. The student analyzes the chosen text to assess its implications for adaptation, interpretation, and performance. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and analyze the literary form or genre;

(B) identify and analyze structural elements in the chosen text;

(C) identify and analyze the narrative voice and/or other speakers (personae) in the literature;

(D) identify and analyze the time, place, and atmosphere (locus);

(E) analyze the shifts or transitions in speaker, time, and place to determine who is speaking, to whom, where, when and for what reason;

(F) analyze individual units such as paragraphs, versus, sentences, and lines for meaning and specificity;

(G) identify descriptive phrases, figures of speech, stylistic devices, and word choices to analyze the imagery in the text;

(H) trace the emotional progression of the text; and

(I) recognize literal and symbolic meanings, universal themes, or unique aspects of the text.

(5) Adaptation. The student adapts written text for individual or group performance based on appropriate research and analysis. The student is expected to:

(A) maintain ethical responsibility to author, text, and audience when adapting literature;

(B) apply appropriate criteria for lifting scenes and cutting literary selections;

(C) use effective strategies for planning and organizing programs focused on a specific theme, author, or central comment; and

(D) write appropriate introductions, transitions, and/or conclusions to supplement the text.

(6) Interpretation. The student applies research and analysis to make appropriate performance choices. The student is expected to:

(A) justify the use or nonuse of manuscript or other aids;

(B) justify strategies for the use of focus, gesture, and movement;

(C) justify the use of vocal strategies such as rate, pitch, inflection, volume, and pause;

(D) justify the use of dialect, pronunciation, enunciation, or articulation; and

(E) use research, analysis, personal experiences, and responses to the literature to justify performance choices.

(7) Rehearsal and performance. The student uses insights gained from research and analysis to rehearse and perform literature for a variety of audiences and occasions. The student is expected to:

(A) use effective rehearsal strategies to promote internalization and visualization of the text;

(B) use appropriate rehearsal strategies to develop confidence and enhance effective communication of the text to an audience in individual and group performance;

(C) participate in effective group decision-making processes to prepare and present group performances; and

(D) present individual and group performances.

(8) Evaluation. The student uses critical and appreciative listening to evaluate individual and group performances. The student is expected to:

(A) listen critically and appreciatively and respond appropriately to performance of others;

(B) analyze and evaluate various performance styles;

(C) use a variety of techniques to evaluate and critique own and others' performances; and

(D) set goals for future performances based on evaluation.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.59 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549.

§110.60: Debate I, II, III (One to Three Credits)

(a) Introduction.

(1) Controversial issues arise in aspects of personal, social public, and professional life in modern society. Debate and argumentation are widely used to make decisions and reduce conflict. Students who develop skills in argumentation and debate become interested in current issues, develop sound critical thinking, and sharpen communication skills. They acquire life-long skills for intelligently approaching controversial issues and clashes of opinion. For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(2) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Debate I, II, III, elective courses, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Role in Society. The student examines the historical and contemporary contributions of debate in decision-making and democratic processes. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the historical and contemporary use of debate in social, political, and religious arenas;

(B) examine the role of the forensic progression of discussion, persuasion, and debate in dealing with controversial issues; and

(C) recognize the role of argumentation and debate as an effective means of analyzing issues, discovering truth, finding solutions to problems, and understanding opposing viewpoints.

(2) Analysis of issues. The student analyzes controversial issues. The student is expected to:

(A) use appropriate standards to analyze and interpret propositions of fact, value, problem, and policy;

(B) accurately phrase and define debatable propositions;

(C) analyze and evaluate propositions and related issues presented in academic and public settings; and

(D) recognize, analyze, and use various debate formats to support propositions.

(3) Propositions of value. The student develops and demonstrates skills for debating propositions of value. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the concept of a value as it applies to a debate;

(B) analyze the role of value assumptions in formulating and evaluating argument;

(C) analyze the works of classical and contemporary philosophers;

(D) apply various standards for evaluating propositions of value;

(E) apply value assumptions and/or classical and contemporary philosophies appropriately in formulating arguments;

(F) develop and use valid approaches to construct affirmative and negative cases;

(G) use valid proofs appropriately to support claims in propositions of value;

(H) construct briefs for value propositions; and

(I) apply voting criteria to value propositions.

(4) Propositions of policy. The student develops and demonstrates skills for debating propositions of policy. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate implications of stock issues in affirmative and negative case construction and refutation;

(B) use and evaluate a variety of valid affirmative and negative strategies to construct affirmative and negative cases;

(C) construct debate briefs for policy propositions; and

(D) analyze and adapt approaches to accommodate a variety of judging paradigms.

(5) Logic. The student applies critical thinking, logic, and reasoning in debate. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and create arguments using various forms of logic such as inductive and deductive reasoning, syllogisms, traditional models of logic, and cause-effect;

(B) identify fallacies in reasoning and apply standards of validity and relevancy in analyzing and constructing argument; and

(C) analyze the role of value assumptions in personal, social, and political conflicts.

(6) Proof. The student utilizes research and proof in debate. The student is expected to:

(A) locate and use a variety of reliable technological and print sources;

(B) identify and apply standard tests of evidence for choosing appropriate logical proofs;

(C) demonstrate skill in recording and organizing information; and

(D) observe ethical guidelines for debate research and use of evidence.

(7) Case construction. The student identifies and applies the basic concepts of debate case construction. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the roles and responsibilities of the affirmative and negative positions;

(B) explain and apply the distinctive approaches to prima facie case construction; and

(C) use a variety of approaches to construct logical affirmative and negative cases.

(8) Refutation. The student identifies and applies the basic concepts of argumentation and refutation. The student is expected to:

(A) listen critically to formulate responses;

(B) take accurate notes during argumentation (flow a debate);

(C) analyze and apply a variety of approaches for refuting and defending arguments;

(D) recognize and use effective cross-examination strategies; and

(E) extend cross-examination responses into refutation.

(9) Delivery. The student uses effective communication skills in debating. The student is expected to:

(A) use precise language and effective verbal skills in argumentation and debate;

(B) use effective nonverbal communication in argumentation and debate;

(C) use effective critical-listening strategies in argumentation and debate;

(D) demonstrate ethical behavior and courtesy during debate; and

(E) develop extemporaneous speaking skills.

(10) Evaluation. The student evaluates and critiques debates. The student is expected to:

(A) use a knowledge of debate principles to develop and apply evaluation standards for various debate formats; and

(B) provide valid and constructive written and/or oral critiques of debates.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.60 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549.

§110.61: Independent Study in Speech (One-Half to One Credit)

(a) Introduction.

(1) Communication skills are important in all aspects of life. Students who have mastered concepts and developed skills in introductory courses should be provided an opportunity to extend their knowledge and expand their skills in more advanced study. Independent study in speech provides opportunity for advanced students to plan, organize, produce, perform, and evaluate a project that enables them to develop advanced skills in communication, critical thinking, and problem solving. For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(2) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Independent Study in Speech, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Proposal. The student plans and designs an independent study project. The student is expected to:

(A) select a topic and define a purpose for an independent study project focused on a specific aspect of communication;

(B) review the research related to the topics identified;

(C) develop a formal proposal for project; and

(D) plan the format and develop timelines for production and presentation.

(2) Research. The student conducts research to support and develop the approved project. The student is expected to:

(A) locate and gather information from a variety of primary, secondary, and electronic sources;

(B) use systematic strategies to organize and record information; and

(C) analyze the research data and develop conclusions to provide a basis for the project.

(3) Produce. The student produces the final product for the project. The student is expected to:

(A) limit and focus the chosen topic, purpose, and format for the presentation;

(B) develop systematic strategies to document the project;

(C) develop appropriate evaluation strategies for each aspect of the production and presentation of the project;

(D) organize and outline the text for the presentation;

(E) choose appropriate proofs, literary texts, and/or scenes to develop and support the text;

(F) produce a written text of superior quality; and

(G) review and revise plans, outlines, and scripts with the teacher.

(4) Rehearse and present. The student presents the final product. The student is expected to:

(A) use rehearsal strategies to gain command of the text and enhance communication and staging of the presentation;

(B) demonstrate appropriate verbal and nonverbal communication skills to enhance and enliven the presentation;

(C) use appropriate visual and auditory aids to support, create interest, and/or add aesthetic appeal to the final presentation; and

(D) present documentation of the progress of the project and submit the final written text or script.

(5) Evaluate. The student and designated individuals evaluate the project. The student is expected to:

(A) use designated strategies to evaluate the project and the presentation; and

(B) analyze problems related to the project and assess implications for future projects.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.61 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549.

§110.62: Journalism (One-Half to One Credit)

(a) Introduction.

(1) Students enrolled in Journalism write in a variety of forms for a variety of audiences and purposes. High school students enrolled in this course are expected to plan, draft, and complete written compositions on a regular basis, carefully examining their papers for clarity, engaging language, and the correct use of the conventions and mechanics of written English. In Journalism, students are expected to write in a variety of forms and for a variety of audiences and purposes. Students will become analytical consumers of media and technology to enhance their communication skills. Writing, technology, visual, and electronic media are used as tools for learning as students create, clarify, critique, write, and produce effective communications. Students enrolled in Journalism will learn journalistic traditions, research self-selected topics, write journalistic texts, and learn the principles of publishing. For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(2) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Journalism, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student demonstrates an understanding of media development, press law, and responsibility. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the history and development of American journalism through people and events;

(B) identify the foundations of journalistic ethics; and

(C) distinguishes between responsible and irresponsible media action.

(2) The student reports and writes for a variety of audiences and purposes and researches self-selected topics to write journalistic texts. The student is expected to:

(A) locate information sources such as persons, databases, reports, and past interviews; gathers background information; and researches to prepare for an interview or investigate a topic;

(B) plan and write relevant questions for an interview or in-depth research;

(C) evaluate and confirm the validity of background information from a variety of sources such as other qualified persons, books, and reports;

(D) incorporate direct and indirect quotes and other research to write in copy;

(E) revise and edit copy using appropriate copyreading and proofreading symbols;

(F) use different forms of journalistic writing such as reviews, ad copy, columns, news, features, and editorials to inform, entertain, and/or persuade;

(G) demonstrate an understanding of the elements of news through writing;

(H) select the most appropriate journalistic format of present content;

(I) use journalistic style;

(J) gather information through interviews (in person or telephone);

(K) write captions;

(L) demonstrate an understanding of the function of headlines through the writing of headlines; and

(M) rewrite copy.

(3) The student demonstrates understanding of the principles of publishing through design using available technologies. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the variety of journalistic publications and products such as newspapers, newsmagazines, and newsletters;

(B) design elements into an acceptable presentation;

(C) use illustrations or photographs that have been cropped, to communicate and emphasize a topic;

(D) use graphic devices such as lines, screens, and art to communicate and emphasize a topic;

(E) prepare a layout for publication; and

(F) design an advertisement for a particular audience.

(4) The student demonstrates an understanding of the economics of publishing. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate between advertising appeals and propaganda;

(B) demonstrate understanding of the type of advertising such as classified, display, or public service; and

(C) understand general salesmanship in selling student-produced publications.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.62 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549.

§110.63: Independent Study in Journalism (One-Half to One Credit)

(a) Introduction.

(1) Students enrolled in Independent Study in Journalism write in a variety of forms for a variety of audiences and purposes. High school students enrolled in this course are expected to plan, draft, and complete written communications on a regular basis, carefully examining their copy for clarity, engaging language, and using the conventions and mechanics of written English correctly. Students will become analytical consumers of media and technology to enhance their communication skills. Writing, technology, visual, and electronic media are used as tools for learning as students create, clarify, critique, write, and produce effective communications. Students enrolled in Independent Study in Journalism will refine and enhance their journalistic skills, research self-selected topics, plan, organize, and prepare a project(s). For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(2) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Independent Study in Journalism, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student refines and enhances journalistic skills. The student is expected to:

(A) formulate questions, refine topics, and clarify ideas;

(B) organize and support what is known and what needs to be learned about a topic;

(C) compile information from primary and secondary sources using available technology;

(D) organize information from multiple sources, including primary and secondary sources;

(E) link related information and ideas from a variety of sources; and

(F) access appropriate print and non-print information using text and technical resources, including databases.

(2) The student produces visual representations that communicate with others. The student is expected to:

(A) conduct a research project(s) with instructor guidance and produce an original work in print or another medium demonstrating advanced skill; and

(B) use a range of techniques in planning and creating projects.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.63 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549.

§110.64: Advanced Broadcast Journalism I, II, III (One-Half Credit to One Credit)

(a) Introduction.

(1) Students need to be critical viewers, consumers, and producers of media. The ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and produce communication in a variety of forms is an important part of language development. High school students enrolled in this course will apply and use their journalistic skills for a variety of purposes. Students will learn the laws and ethical considerations that affect broadcast journalism; learn the role and function of broadcast journalism; critique and analyze the significance of visual representations; and learn to produce by creating a broadcast journalism product. For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(2) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Advanced Broadcast Journalism I, II, III, elective courses, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student demonstrates knowledge of broadcast journalism. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the historical development of broadcasting from early radio to present day television;

(B) identify the function and role of broadcast media (radio, television) in society;

(C) evaluate the laws and ethical considerations affecting broadcast journalism;

(D) explore the impact of radio and television on society;

(E) identify the role of broadcast media consumers; and

(F) identify the strategies of broadcasting to reach certain audiences, including programming decisions.

(2) The student recognizes how broadcast productions are created and disseminated. The student is expected to:

(A) understand the role of various personnel, including producers, station managers, technical directors, camera operators, and news anchors, in broadcast journalism;

(B) identify technical elements of broadcast production used to create and deliver news such as equipment, camera basics, editing, and captions;

(C) understand the economics of broadcasting such as advertising and public funds; and

(D) demonstrate understanding of how media content is produced by creating and presenting a broadcast journalism product such as a news report, or an interview.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.64 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549.

§110.65: Photojournalism (One-Half to One Credit)

(a) Introduction.

(1) Students enrolled in Photojournalism communicate in a variety of forms for a variety of audiences and purposes. High school students are expected to plan, interpret, and critique visual representation, carefully examining their product for publication. Students will become analytical consumers of media and technology to enhance their communication skills. High school students will study the laws and ethical considerations that impact photography. Technology, visual, and electronic media are used as tools for learning as students create, clarify, critique, and produce effective visual representations. Students enrolled in this course will refine and enhance their journalistic skills, plan, prepare, and produce photographs for a journalistic publication. For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(2) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Photojournalism, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student interprets/critiques visual representations. The student is expected to:

(A) recognize the major events in the development of modern day photography;

(B) recognize composition principles and their impact on photography;

(C) recognize and apply ethical and legal standards to all aspects of photojournalism; and

(D) recognize the impact of electronic technology and future trends in digital imaging on the traditional field of photo journalism.

(2) The student produces visual representations that communicate with others. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the basic parts of a camera and their functions;

(B) identify different types of film and determine their appropriate uses;

(C) produce a properly exposed print where the subject is sharply focused and demonstrate the use of the elements or principles of design;

(D) use lighting and be aware of its qualities such as direction, intensity, color, and the use of artificial light;

(E) stop action by determining appropriate shutter speed or use panning or hand holding with slower shutter speeds;

(F) evaluate technical qualities of photos;

(G) practice safety in handling and disposing of chemicals when operating in a darkroom;

(H) learn the theory of film developing by understanding the latent image, film structure, and method of development;

(I) use appropriate equipment to process film and make prints and make contact sheets;

(J) create digitized images using technology to complete the process; and

(K) improve print quality by using appropriate equipment or technology.

(3) The student incorporates photographs into journalistic publication. The student is expected to:

(A) plan photo layouts;

(B) illustrate events with appropriate photos and captions;

(C) plan photographs in relation to assignments from an editor; and

(D) set up or follow a system for keeping track of negatives, photo images, contact sheets, and meeting deadlines.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.65 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549.

§110.66: Advanced Journalism: Yearbook I, II, III/Newspaper I, II, III/Literary Magazine (One-Half to One Credit)

(a) Introduction.

(1) Students enrolled in Advanced Journalism: Yearbook I, III, III/Newspaper I, II, III/Literary Magazine communicate in a variety of forms for a variety of audiences and purposes. High school students are expected to plan, draft, and complete written and/or visual communications on a regular basis, carefully examining their copy for clarity, engaging language, and the correct use of the conventions and mechanics of written English. In Advanced Journalism: Yearbook I, II, III/Newspaper I, II, III/Literary Magazine, students are expected to become analytical consumers of media and technology to enhance their communication skills. In addition, students will learn journalistic ethics and standards. Writing, technology, and visual and electronic media are used as tools for learning as students create, clarify, critique, write, and produce effective communications. Students enrolled in Advanced Journalism: Yearbook I, II, III/Newspaper I, II, III/Literary Magazine will refine and enhance their journalistic skills, research self-selected topics, and plan, organize, and prepare a project(s). For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(2) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Advanced Journalism: Yearbook I, II, III/Newspaper I, II, III/Literary Magazine, elective courses, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student understands individual and staff responsibilities of coverage appropriate for the publication's audience. The student is expected to:

(A) understand the role and responsibilities of each staff member and the purpose of the publication;

(B) use the skills necessary to plan and produce a publication;

(C) read other publications, both professional and student-produced, and generate story ideas of interest or of need to the publication's audience;

(D) conduct research using a variety of sources such as firsthand interviews and other means available, including the Internet; and

(E) conceive coverage ideas and create multifaceted presentations of material, including but not limited to, standard story form, infographics, sidebars, photos, and art.

(2) The student understands journalistic ethics and standards and the responsibility to cover subjects of interest and importance to the audience. The student is expected to:

(A) find a variety of sources to provide balance to coverage;

(B) compose the story accurately keeping his/her own opinion out of non-editorial coverage;

(C) provide editorial coverage to inform and encourage the reader to make intelligent decisions;

(D) critique the publication to find its strengths and weaknesses and work toward an improved product based on those critiques; and

(E) actively seeks non-staff opinion on the publication and determine whether that opinion should affect the publication.

(3) The student understands all aspects of a publication and the means by which that publication is created. The student is expected to:

(A) report and write for publications;

(B) write and design headlines for publications;

(C) research and write captions for publications;

(D) plan and produce photographs for publications;

(E) design publications;

(F) create and follow a financial plan for supporting publications, including sales and advertising; and

(G) consider finances in making decisions, including number of pages and cost-incurring extras such as color, paper quality, number of copies.

(4) The student produces publications. The student is expected to:

(A) determine which events and issues are newsworthy for a readership;

(B) use skills in reporting and writing to produce publications;

(C) select the most appropriate journalistic format to present content;

(D) create pages for publications;

(E) incorporate photographs with captions or graphics into publications;

(F) use available technology to produce publications; and

(G) evaluate stories/coverage for balance and readability.

(5) The student demonstrates leadership and teamwork abilities. The student is expected to:

(A) determine roles for which different team members will assume responsibility;

(B) determine coverage and concepts for publications;

(C) develop a deadline schedule and a regular means of monitoring progress;

(D) submit work for editing and critiquing and make appropriate revisions;

(E) edit and critique work of others; and

(F) work cooperatively and collaboratively through a variety of staff assignments.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.66 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549.

Subchapter D

§110.81: Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading, Other High School English Language Arts and Reading Courses

The provisions of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning September 1, 1998.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.81 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549.

§110.82: Independent Study in English, Journalism, and/or Speech (One-Half to One Credit)

(a) General requirements. Students can be awarded one-half to one credit for successful completion of Independent Study in English, Journalism, and/or Speech. Recommended prerequisites: none. Students may repeat these courses with different course content for additional credits.

(b) Content requirements. The course content for these independent study courses can be found in §110.46 of this title (relating to Independent Study in English (One-Half to One Credit)), §110.61 of this title (relating to Independent Study in Speech (One-Half to One Credit)), and §110.63 of this title (relating to Independent Study in Journalism (One-Half to One Credit)).

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.82 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549.

§110.83: Advanced Placement (AP) English Language and Composition (One-Half to One Credit)

(a) General requirements. Students can be awarded one-half to one credit for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisites: English II.

(b) Content requirements. Content requirements for Advanced Placement (AP) English Language and Composition are prescribed in the College Board Publication Advanced Placement Course Description: English, published by The College Board. This publication may be obtained from the College Board Advanced Placement Program.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.83 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549.

§110.84: Advanced Placement (AP) English Literature and Composition (One-Half to One Credit)

(a) General requirements. Students can be awarded one-half to one credit for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisite: English III or Advanced Placement (AP) English Language and Composition.

(b) Content requirements. Content requirements for Advanced Placement (AP) English Literature and Composition are prescribed in the College Board Publication Advanced Placement Course Description: English, published by The College Board. This publication may be obtained from the College Board Advanced Placement Program.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.84 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549.

§110.85: Advanced Placement (AP) International English Language (One-Half to One Credit)

(a) General requirements. Students can be awarded one-half to one credit for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisite: English III.

(b) Content requirements. Content requirements for Advanced Placement (AP) International English Language are prescribed in the College Board Publication Advanced Placement Course Description: English, published by The College Board. This publication may be obtained from the College Board Advanced Placement Program.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.85 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549.

§110.86: International Baccalaureate (IB) Language Studies A1 Standard Level (One-Half to One Credit)

(a) General requirements. Students can be awarded one-half to one credit for successful completion of International Baccalaureate (IB) Language Studies A1 Standard Level. To offer this course, the district must meet all requirements of the International Baccalaureate Organization including teacher training/certification and IB assessment. Recommended prerequisites: English II.

(b) Content requirements. Content requirements for IB Language Studies A1 Standard Level are prescribed by the International Baccalaureate Organization. Curriculum guides may be obtained from International Baccalaureate of North America.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.86 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549.

§110.87: International Baccalaureate (IB) Language Studies A1 Higher Level (One-Half to One Credit)

(a) General requirements. Students can be awarded one-half to one credit for successful completion of International Baccalaureate (IB) Language Studies A1 Higher Level. To offer this course, the district must meet all requirements of the International Baccalaureate Organization, including teacher training/certification and IB assessment. Recommended prerequisites: Language Studies A1 Standard Level.

(b) Content requirements. Content requirements for IB Language Studies A1 Higher Level are prescribed by the International Baccalaureate Organization. Curriculum guides may be obtained from International Baccalaureate of North America.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.87 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549.

§110.88: Concurrent Enrollment in College Courses

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one-half credit for each semester of successful completion of a college course in which the student is concurrently enrolled while in high school.

(b) Content requirements. In order for students to receive state graduation credit for concurrent enrollment courses, content requirements must meet or exceed the essential knowledge and skills in a given course.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §110.88 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549.