B. Agency Oversight
The Parameters provide recommendations for the appropriate use of psychotropic medications for foster children and include criteria indicating need for review of the child's clinical status. Medical Consenters, caregivers, judges, attorneys, and advocates also use the Parameters as they fulfill their duties of advocacy and oversight.
1. Medication Review
STAR Health oversees automated reviews of pharmacy claims data for all children in foster care receiving psychotropic medications to identify medication regimens which appear to be outside the Parameters. Additionally, STAR Health clinical staff routinely conducts telephonic health screenings when children newly enter DFPS conservatorship or change placements.
The telephonic health screening includes screening of the child's psychotropic medications regimen. The screening process includes criteria such as:
• Does the child have a documented mental health diagnosis?
• What is the child’s age? (Prescriptions might need further review if the child is under age 3 or 4, depending on the class of medication.)
• Is the child taking two or more medications from the same drug class? (Two mood stabilizers and long and short acting stimulants from the same family are allowed, but otherwise two or more medications from the same class call for further review.)
• Is the child prescribed five or more psychotropic medications regardless of the class?
2. Psychotropic Medication Utilization Review
The Psychotropic Medication Utilization Review (PMUR) is designed to determine whether a child's psychotropic medication regimen is outside of the Parameters and, if so, whether a consultation call from a STAR Health child psychiatrist to the prescribing physician is indicated. A PMUR can be initiated by STAR Health if indicated by a health screening or pharmacy claim review. A PMUR may also be triggered by a request from any judge, attorney, caseworker, advocate, foster parent, Medical Consenter or other concerned person working with the child. The PMUR examines child-specific clinical information about a child’s diagnoses, medication dosage, and whether the medication regimen is in compliance with the Parameters. STAR Health has committed to priority responses to inquiries from judges concerning children under their supervision. PMUR findings are usually sent to the child’s caseworker or can be faxed or emailed directly to the court, if requested.
All PMUR requests are reviewed by one of two STAR Health Licensed Behavior Health Clinicians who gather medical records and screen children's psychotropic medication regimens for compliance with the Parameters. If the regimen is outside the Parameters, the clinician refers the case to a STAR Health child psychiatrist to conduct a PMUR. The child psychiatrist outreaches to the treating physician, works with the treating physician to reduce polypharmacy if indicated, and prepares a PMUR report. The PMUR report will contain a formal determination about the foster child’s medication regimen. The possible determinations are as follows:
• Medication regimen within Parameters
• Medication regimen outside Parameters. Medication regimen reviewed and found to be within the standard of care
• Medication regimen outside Parameters, and there is opportunity to reduce polypharmacy
• Medication regimen is outside Parameters, and there is risk for or evidence of significant side effects.
STAR Health is in a good position to intervene and educate the prescribing physician because all providers are clinically privileged by STAR Health. Physicians who appear to consistently prescribe outside the Parameters despite risk for or evidence of significant side effects, or when there is an opportunity to reduce poly-pharmacy, are referred to the Quality of Care (QOC) review process. Additional records are examined for pervasive patterns of over or dangerous prescribing. Qualifying cases are referred to the Credentialing Committee for further investigation and action. The results of Quality Improvement and Credentialing Committee investigations and actions are confidential and may not be released to or discussed with the public. All QOC issues are tracked and trended. Any practitioner showing a pattern or trend may be placed on corrective action and/or face disciplinary action up to and including termination of contract, if warranted.
A PMUR cannot address whether other medications might be effective and this process is not the appropriate avenue to address immediate concerns about new medications or medication side effects; the informed consent process is considered the appropriate avenue to inquire about new medications and side effects. In these situations, STAR Health recommends that the Medical Consenter contact the prescribing physician directly. DFPS also employs CPS Nurse Consultants in each administrative region to assist CPS staff with children's health issues, including questions about psychotropic medications.
3. Effect of Texas’ Oversight Process
As a result of the various improvements to Texas’ oversight process, including hiring a Medical Director at DFPS, implementing the Parameters as a statewide monitoring system, and launching managed care and clinical consultation by STAR Health, the prescription patterns of psychotropic medications for Texas foster children have improved significantly. Every year, the use of psychotropic medications in Texas foster care continues to decrease and has decreased by 71% from 2002 to 2014 for children prescribed psychotropic medications for 60 days or more.